The Mysterious Magnetic Personality Of Our Star

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Our Solar System emerged about 4.56 billion years ago from the mixed remnants still lingering from the long-dead, nuclear-fusing searing-hot cores of earlier generations of ancient stars. Our Sun was born the same way as other stars of its generation–from a dense frigid blob tenderly tucked within the billowing, undulating folds of one of the many giant, dark, and beautiful molecular clouds that haunt our Milky Way Galaxy like lovely ghosts floating around in the space between stars. These enormous dark clouds, composed of gas and dust, are the strange cradles of baby stars. Even though it may seem counterintuitive, things have to get very cold in order for a fiery, hot newborn star to be born. Stars keep their secrets well, hiding their many mysteries from those who seek to understand them and their secretive nature. In July 2017, a team of astronomers, using new numerical supercomputer simulations and observations announced that scientists may now be able to explain why our Sun’s magnetic field reverses every eleven years–and this important discovery explains how the duration of the magnetic cycle of a star depends on its rotation, helping to shed new light on the turbulent space weather around our Sun and kindred stars.

The magnetic field of our Sun, and other stars like it, is generated by the motion of conductive plasma within the star. This motion is created as a result of convection, which is a form of energy transport that involves the physical movement of material. A localized magnetic field exerts a powerful force on the stellar plasma, that effectively increases the pressure without a comparable gain in density. Because of this, the magnetized region rises relative to what is left of the plasma–at least until it reaches the star’s photosphere. This causes starspots to form on the star’s surface, as well as creating the related phenomenon of coronal loops.

A star’s magnetic field can be measured by using what is called the Zeeman effect. The atoms within a star’s atmosphere will usually absorb certain frequencies of energy in the electromagnetic spectrum. As a result, this produces characteristic lines in the stellar spectrum. However, when the atoms are within a magnetic field, these lines split into multiple, closely spaced lines. The energy also becomes polarized with an orientation that is dependent on the orientation of the magnetic field. Therefore, the direction and strength of any given star’s magnetic field can be calculated by examination of the Zeeman effect lines.

Stellar spectropolarimeters are used to measure the magnetic field of a star. This instrument is composed of a spectrograph that is used in combination with a polarimeter. The first instrument to be dedicated to the examination of stellar magnetic fields was NARVAL, which was mounted on the Bernard Lyot Telescope at Pic du Midi de Bigorre in the French Pyrenees mountains.

Various other measurements were made by scientists using magnetometer measurements over the past century-and-a-half. The existence of carbon 14 in tree rings, and Beryllium 10 in ice cores, revealed that there has been substantial magnetic variability of our Sun on decadal, centennial and millennial time scales.

The Secret Lives Of Stars

Our Sun is a lonely star–a sparkling sphere of fire in Earth’s daytime sky. However, it probably was not always this solitary, because our Star is likely to have been born as a glittering member of a dense open stellar cluster hosting literally thousands of other brilliant sibling stars. Many astronomers propose that our neonatal Star was either thrown out of its birth cluster, as the result of unfortunate gravitational interactions with other stars, or it simply floated away from its stellar siblings about 4.5 billion years ago. The missing solar siblings have long since floated away to distant regions of our Milky Way Galaxy–and there well may be as many as 3,500 of these vanished sisters of our Star inhabiting faraway corners of interstellar space.

Our Galaxy’s myriad of fiery stars, including our Sun, were born the same way–as a result of the gravitational collapse of a dense pocket embedded within the secretive swirls of a giant molecular cloud. These dark clouds contain the relic gas and dust scattered throughout our Milky Way by older generations of ancient stars that perished long ago. These star-birthing clouds tend to mix themselves up together, but stars that display a kindred chemistry usually reveal themselves inhabiting the same clouds at about the same time.

There are three generations of stars in the observable Universe. Stars belonging to stellar Population III are the oldest stars. These very ancient stars were born from pristine hydrogen and helium, produced in the Big Bang birth of the Universe itself, almost 14 billion years ago. For this reason, it is thought that Population III stars probably formed differently from the two populations of younger stars. This is because the younger stars are not composed of pristine gases, but instead are „polluted“ by heavier atomic elements manufactured by older stars. Indeed, Population III stars are depleted of what astronomers call metals, which are all of the atomic elements heavier than helium. Therefore, the term metal for astronomers has a different meaning than it does for chemists. The metals were manufactured in the nuclear-fusing furnaces of the stars–or, alternatively, in the supernovae conflagrations that heralded the demise of the most massive stellar inhabitants of the Cosmos. The heaviest metals, such as gold and uranium, were formed as a result of these violent and brilliant stellar death throes.

Our Sun is a sparkling member of stellar Population I–the youngest of the three generations of stars, and it carries within it the heavy metals fused in the furnaces of the two older generations of stars.

Population II stars, the stellar „sandwich“ generation, are younger than Population III stars, but older than Population I stars like our Sun. Population II stars contain very small quantities of metals, but because they are not metal free, there has to have been a population of stars that came before them to create those metals–hence, there has to have been a Population III.

However, the reality is somewhat more complicated. This is because even Population I stars are composed primarily of hydrogen gas–just like the two earlier stellar generations. Population I stars contain more metals than the two older generations of stars, but they are still mostly composed of hydrogen gas. All of the stars, belonging to all three stellar generations, are primarily composed of hydrogen.

Today our Sun is a middle-aged, hydrogen burning star that is still on the main-sequence of the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram of Stellar Evolution. By star-standards, our Sun is ordinary. There are planets, moons, and an assortment of smaller objects in orbit around our Star, which dwells in the far suburbs of a typical starlit, barred-spiral Galaxy–our Milky Way. If we trace the history of atoms on our Earth today back to about 7 billion years, we would likely find them scattered throughout our Galaxy. Some of these widely scattered atoms now exist in a single strand of your genetic material (DNA), even though in the ancient Universe they were formed deep within alien stars lighting up our then very young Galaxy.

The Mysterious Magnetic Personality Of Our Star

The magnetic field of our Star has reversed every 11 years over the centuries. When these reversals happen, the solar south magnetic pole switches to the north and vice versa. This „flip“ occurs during the peak of each solar cycle and it originates as a result of a process termed a dynamo. A dynamo generates magnetic fields, and this involves the rotation of the star as well as convection– the rising and falling of searing-hot gas within the star’s roiling interior.

Astronomers know that our Sun’s magnetic fields form in its turbulent outer layers, and that they have a complicated dependency upon how speedily our Star is rotating. Astronomers have also measured magnetic cycles for distant stars beyond our Sun, and they have shown fundamental properties that are similar to those of our own Star. By observing the characteristics of these magnetic properties, astronomers now have a promising new method that they can use to better understand the magnetic evolution of our Star that is associated with the dynamo process.

An international team of astronomers that includes scientists from the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA), the University of Montreal, the Commissariat a l’energie atomique et aux energies alternatives and the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, conducted a set of 3D simulations of the mysterious, searing-hot turbulent interiors of Sun-like stars, in order to explain the origin of their magnetic field cycles. The astronomers found that the period of the magnetic cycle depends on the rotation rate of the spinning star. This revealed that more sluggishly spinning stars have magnetic cycles that repeat more frequently.

„The trend we found differs from theories developed in the past. This really opens new research avenues for our understanding of the magnetism of stars,“ noted Dr. Antoine Strugarek in a July 26, 2017 CfA Press Release. Dr. Strugarek is of the Commissariat a l’energie atomique et aux energies alternatives, France, and the lead of of a paper describing this research published in the July 14, 2017 issue of the journal Science Magazine. The CfA is in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

One particularly important advance is that the astronomers‘ new model can explain the cycle of both our Sun and stars that are similar to it–Sun-like stars, as astronomers categorize them. Previously, astronomers thought that our Sun’s magnetic cycle might differ in behavior from those of Sun-like stars, with a shorter magnetic cycle than predicted.

„Our work supports the idea that our Sun is an average, middle-aged yellow dwarf star, with a magnetic cycle compatible with cycles from its stellar cousins. In other words we confirm that the Sun really is a useful proxy for understanding other stars in many ways,“ explained study co-author Dr. Jose-Dias Do Nascimento. Dr. Do Nascimento is of the CfA and the University of Rio G. do Norte (UFRN), in Brazil.

By carefully observing more and more stars and exploring stellar structures that are different from those of our Sun with numerical simulations, the team of astronomers hope to refine their new model for the origin of stellar magnetic cycles.

One goal for future work is to attain a better understanding of „space weather“, a term used to describe the wind of particles that rushes away from the Sun and other stars like it. The mechanism of acceleration for this blowing wind of particles is probably related to magnetic fields in the atmospheres of stars. In extreme cases, space weather can wreak havoc with electrical power on Earth, as well as creating a very dangerous environment for both satellites and astronauts.

Dr. Do Nascimento noted in the CfA Press Release that „The changes throughout a magnetic cycle have effects throughout the Solar System and other planetary systems thanks to the influence of space weather.“

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Source by Judith E Braffman-Miller

Avantree 3 in 1 Portable Tragbares FM Radio, Klein Mini Radio mit Bluetooth Lautsprecher, SD Card MP3 Player mit Akku, Auto Scan Save, LED Display, Batteriebetrieben – SP850

Avantree 3 in 1 Portable Tragbares FM Radio, Klein Mini Radio mit Bluetooth Lautsprecher, SD Card MP3 Player mit Akku, Auto Scan Save, LED Display, Batteriebetrieben - SP850

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Dieser multifunktionelle, transportierbare Lautsprecher wird Ihnen einen Genussvollen Sound bescheren. Ganz egal ob Sie Ihre Musik oder Ihren Lieblingsradiosender in der Küche, im Wohnzimmer, im Garten oder im Park genießen wollen – dieser Lautsprecher macht es möglich. Super Signal und eine lange Spielzeit lassen Sie diese ohne Sorgen genießen.

Spezifikationen
* Bluetooth Version: 2.1
* Bluetooth Zeit: Bis zu 6 Stunden
* BluetoothReichweite: Bis zu 10 Meter
* Micro SD Card Support: MP3, WMA, WAV Format
* Speicherkapazität: max 32GB
* Lautsprecher Abgabeleistung: 3W
* Lautsprecher Frequenzreichweite: 90Hz ~ 18 kHz
* Ladezeit: Ca.2Stunden
* FM Zeit: Bis zu 6 Stunden
* FM Frequenzreichweite: 87MHz bis 108MHz
* Aufladespannung: 5V–500mA
* Maße: 130×66×32mm
* Nettogewicht: 158g

Lieferumfang
* Bluetooth Lautsprecher
* Micro USB Ladekabel
* 3.5mm Audiokabel
* Bedienungsanleitung

Garantie
Wir bieten Ihnen eine 12-monatige Garantie bei normalen Gebrauch. Live online Support, Telefon Support und E-Mail Support sind verfügbar. Außerdem sind Video-Anleitungen auf der Avantree Website verfügbar.

Support
Bei Problemen oder Anregungen kontaktieren Sie uns bitte über unsere internationale Telefonnummer ODER E-Mail, eine Antwort innerhalb eines Werktages ist garantiert. Wir verpflichten uns zu 100%-iger Kundezufriedenheit.

3-IN-1 RADIO LAUTSPRECHER: Sie können Musik via Bluetooth kabellos von Ihrem PC / Handy / Tablet streamen. Kinder und ältere Leute können via Micro SD Karten-Modus ihre Lieblingsmusik oder Geschichten hören. Sie können Ihre Lieblingsmusik oder Radiosender via FM Radio-Modus hören.
AUTOMATISCHES & MANUELLES SUCHEN & SPEICHERN VON KANÄLEN: Mit nur einem Klick sucht das Gerät automatisch nach allen verfügbaren Sendern und speichert diese. Außerdem können Sie Ihre Lieblingssender manuell auswählen und speichern, indem Sie die Zahlenknöpfe drücken. Verbinden Sie das USB Kabel als Antenne um das Signal in einem geschlossenen Umfeld zu verbessern.
TOLLER SOUND MIT SECHS EQUALIZERN: Erleben Sie Ihre Songs maßgeschneidert an Sie, mit den Equalizern: Natural, Rock, Pop, Classic, Jazz und Soft im Bluetooth und Micro SD Karten Modus.
ULTRA- PORTABLES DESIGN: Dank dem leichten und kleinen Design für Taschen-Lautsprecher (Größe 130*32*66mm) und zusätzlicher Handschlaufe lässt der Lautsprecher sich sehr praktisch überall mit hinnehmen.
24 MONATE GARANTIE & ANHALTENDER SUPPORT: Mit der 24-monatigen Garantie, die im Avantree SP850 enthalten ist, fühlen Sie sich sicher in Ihrem Kauf.



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Would You Like to Hire a Celebrity Makeup Artist?

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No matter how badly you try to emulate your favorite celebrity’s look, the harsh reality is that you always end up falling short. That’s because of the fact that celebrity make-up is always about a string of secrets that regular people will never know unless and until they are hiring celebrity makeup artists themselves. It wouldn’t have been possible for celebrities to pull off such vastly different and yet individualistic looks every time with such aplomb if it had not been for these artists!

The Magic Wielded By Celebrity Makeup Artists

Thanks to their make-up artists, they end up looking so flawless every time they make public appearances. You can hire a Celebrity Makeup Artist to secure similar flawless look as well. Now, the trick is to figure out how exactly you can actually go on to find a celebrity make-up artist at the first place. It doesn’t matter whether it’s your wedding or whether you’re just looking to turn heads at a party, hiring the right make-up artist in your city is your passport to fame! Trust us you will be known in your circuit for the looks sported by you after getting the right makeup artist on board.

It is important on your end to carry out a thorough research on the background of artist before you are actually taking a call (whether you want to hire a particular makeup artist or not).

What Should You Remember?

Please remember that artists in general will furnish details of their credentials including their schooling. However, experts maintain that true makeup artistry is not only about great schooling but something which one does passionately and is never scared of learning even when he/she grows old. If one really believes that sky is the limit as far this profession is concerned, then one should not really be afraid of learning as much as he/she can as well.

You should be particularly interested in getting an artist on board who has actually gone on to earn rave reviews from celebrities themselves. Now, you cannot even think of reaching out to your favorite celebs in order to find out what their true opinions regarding the works of a few of the artists out there are. So, the trick is to find out whether the particular artist whose services you are considering has been presented with any prestigious award or not – or for that matter, if you have friends from the celeb circle, you can check with them for suggestions as well.

What Should You Do?

Kindly ensure that you are investing some time in finding the right person. You should be ideally aware of the fact that the services of celebrity makeup artists are definitely costlier than the services of the regular artists. You should start comparing the prices beforehand. Try to have an idea how much extra they can possibly cost you. Start your research before hand so that you have enough time to do your calculations and to figure out whether you would be able to afford services at the first place or not.

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Source by Pooja Goel

Star-Scooter Aluminium Kickscooter Roller Kinderroller Tretroller für Jungen und Mädchen ab 6-7 Jahre | Big 205mm Wheel mit XXL Trittbrett Scooter für Kinder und Erwachsene | Grau & Blau

Star-Scooter Aluminium Kickscooter Roller Kinderroller Tretroller für Jungen und Mädchen ab 6-7 Jahre | Big 205mm Wheel mit XXL Trittbrett Scooter für Kinder und Erwachsene | Grau & Blau

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Altersempfehlung: ab ca. 7 Jahren (ca. 125 cm Körpergröße)
Länge: ca. 98 cm | Trittbrettbreite: ca. 17 cm | Trittbretthöhe: ca. 8 cm | Lenkerhöhe: ca. 89 cm – 102 cm | Gewicht: ca. 4,7 KG

Unser STAR-SCOOTER aus hochwertigem Aluminium – Er erfüllt sämtliche Normen und Anforderungen der EU (DIN EN 14619:2015) wie auch der USA (ASTM F2264-14 / CPSIA 101/108/114).
In den aktuellen Trendfarben erfüllt dieses Premium Produkt höchste Ansprüche an Qualität und Sicherheit. Hier beziehen Sie den Artikel direkt vom Hersteller und in unserem Shop finden Sie eine große Farbauswahl. Erleben Sie anspruchsvolle Qualität zum Spitzenpreis!

* TOP-FEATURE:Mit dem Trittbrett in XL Größe ausgerüstet können jederzeit bequem beide Füsse abgestellt werden. Das entlastet die Muskulatur deutlich
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* Höhenverstellbarer Lenker mit angenehm weichen Griffpolstern
* Standardmäßig mit Hinterrad Reibungsbremse ausgestattet und für bis zu 100KG Tragkraft ausgelegt
* Das widerstandsfähige Anti-Rutsch-Griptape sorgt für einen sicheren Stand auch auf längeren Strecken
* 205mm High Rebound Rollen für mehr Laufruhe und Komfort
* Ausgestattet mit Kick-Seitenständer und verstellbarem Tragegurt
* Komfortabler Klappmechanismus mittels welchem das Einquetschen eines Finger ausgeschlossen ist
* Versandlieferung erfolgt fertig montiert, neu und originalverpackt. Einfach Auspacken und es kann sofort losgehen!

* * * Bitte besuchen Sie unseren Star-Trademarks Shop, wo jede Menge hochwertige Scooter und Sonderangebote auf Sie warten * * *✔ QUALITÄTSARBEIT: Unser XXL Deck Edition Scooter aus hochwertigem Aluminium – Er erfüllt sämtliche Normen und Anforderungen der EU (DIN EN 14619:2015) wie auch der USA (ASTM F2264-14 / CPSIA 101/108/114)
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Barred Plymouth Rock Chickens

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The Barred Plymouth Rock chicken originated from a cross between a Dominique rooster and either a black Java or a Black Cochin hen in the mid eighteen hundreds. The Barred Rock chicken is truly one of the best dual purpose birds a hardy bird even in cold weather, it is also docile, tame, and active. Barred Rocks like to run, but they don’t demand much space. Also, due to their heavy structures, they don’t fly, meaning you don’t need a fence to be too high to accommodate their needs. They don’t need much to thrive, so are very easy to keep and breed. The Barred rock males and females have an upright carriage and are graceful, stylish birds. The hens are rarely broody but are good mothers and roosters matures early into a broiler. The Barred Rocks are a great practical addition to any flock for every day in the year use.

|a4e416da73c9aacd5fd38cfe52785447||cb7b66ea18191cee8a2a42e6a8f15c8f| Barred Rocks have long, broad bodies with a well-rounded moderately deep breasts. All of their feathering are black and white horizontal lines (barring) that extend out to their moderately short tails, which are spread well in the roosters but tend to be a bit shorter and twice as much black per line in the hens making them much darker. Their combs are red medium size, single comb evenly serrated with 5 well-defined points that are straight upright. Their beak feet and leg are yellow.

Baby Chick description: The chicks are black with a white spot on the top of their heads. The wing tips and abdomen are white and they have single or serrated combs. The beaks, feet, and legs are yellow with some black.

Origin: United States

Classification Type: Americans class

Temperament: adaptable to confinement or free range, calm and docile.

Purpose: dual purpose eggs laying and meat production

Broodiness: not generally but make good mothers

Hardiness: cold hardy

Maturing: 20-22 weeks

Mating ratio: 10 females to 1 male

Egg color: brown

Egg Size: large 26-27 oz per dozens

Rate Of Lay: excellent

Eggs per year: 280- 300

Skin Color: yellow

Comb Color: red

Ear lobes: red

Wattles: moderately long & well-rounded

Weight: Hen 7 lbs Rooster: 9 1/2 lbs

Pullet 6 lbs Cockerel 8 lbs

Roost height: 2ft – 4ft

Spacing: confined at all times 10 square feet per bird. Confined at night only at least 4 square feet of space per bird.

Life Span: depends on how well they are cared for, and the quality of life that they enjoyed. A standard Barred Plymouth Rock will generally live for approximately 6-8 years but have been known to reach 10-12 years.

Varieties: Barred— Buff– Silver– Penciled–White–Partridge- Columbian–Blue

Some Other facts about this breeds: are that the Barred Plymouth Rocks are commonly incorrectly referred to as „Dominiquer“. Both the Plymouth Barred Rock and the Dominiquer have the same horizontal black and white barring color line plumage. However, the Dominique have a slightly more angular body and a rose comb.

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Source by T Riley

Pop-Up Tents for Pets – Worth the Investment?

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You will be surprised to know that there is a wide variety of pop up tents available in the market.

If you want to give your pet a taste of the outdoor life, let your dog carry his own tent when backpacking or protect any of your elderly cats, you will find a tent that will suit both you and your pet.

Most pet tent are often designed for dogs. However, manufacturers have come to realize that our feline friends could also use one. Let us look at a number of the top kinds of pop up tents available nowadays.

Pop Up Tents for Cats

Needless to say, many dog tents being sold can be used for cats as well.

Always remember (no pun intended) that it is even worse to let cats stay inside the tent without supervision while camping. They will not only try to claw, scratch and bite their way, out but also possibly invite predators if you are not around.

Cat tents still prove to be a favorite product; especially in the way they allow indoor and elderly cats to have fun in the outdoors.

Some of the advantages of cat tents are:

Suitable for Indoor Cats

Pet owners are concerned if the mental stimulation they give to their cat is sufficient. A cat tent lets you take your cat outdoors without needing any leash or harness. What can be really more fun than herding cats!

Protect Aging/Handicapped Cats

If it is taking years for your cat to recover from surgery, you will want to keep it away from dogs and other cats.

When you put up a cat tent on your grounds, your elderly pet can continue to enjoy the outdoors. They can also be used inside your home if you have other cats as well.

Ideal for Front Porches and Balconies

Whether you are living in a condo or apartment, it is hard for your cat to get fresh air. When you set a cat tent on the balcony, you have peace of mind that they will not jump over the railings.

Most cat tent owners set them on their front porch/deck. This way, they can enjoy the weather outside with their furry friends.

Keeps Cats from Jumping Over Fences

Cat tents can be used to prevent indoor cats from jumping over the fence while outdoors. This can relax your mind if you live along a busy street or close to a highway.

Best for Territorial Cats

By nature, cats are territorial, and if you have many cats, this can be a problem. They mark their territory by spraying some urine. At times, it could be hard to remove a cat from a particular closet or room.

In this case, a cat tent can come in handy – since it provides your cat with an enclosed space. This is a lot better than going to an extra room each time you like to see your beloved furry pet.

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Source by Karina Popa

Using Broadband Technology for Mission Critical Train Radio Communications

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If you live in or around a big city like Sydney or Melbourne, you will have traveled by train at some point in time. Most people would understand the basic concepts, like the signal is at green, the train arrives turning the signal red for a short period of time until the first train has moved a safe distance away, allowing the signal to turn green again. There are signals located in every sector, where trains travel through and they are very reliable; should the signalling system fail, then all the trains stop and you have a right side failure. When the signalling system is no longer operating correctly or if it has received conflicting data from track circuits, all the signals display a red signal and the driver needs to be authorized by the signaller to pass.

The driver after waiting for a short period of time, contacts the signaller using a train radio for permission to pass a signal at red. The train radio is used for mission critical communications, because passing a signal at red can cause an accident, such as one train crashing into the back of another or head on collision if at a siding entering a main line.

The origins of modern train radio go back 40 years to 1977 when a paper written by Clive Kessell on „The Development of Radio Communications between the Signal man and the Driver“ was presented at an Institute of Railways Signalling Engineers meeting to promote interest in developing radio communication between train and the signal box. Radio communications was the best way to stop a train or move one that had stopped; it is safer to keep the driver in the train rather than walking the track looking for a signal post phone to contact the signaller.

A communication standard was developed at the time called UIC751-3 created a 4 channel UHF analogue train radio network that was deployed around London’s Kings Cross and St Pancreas station; it was also rolled out in parts of Europe, especially in West German where much of the initial development occurred.

The analogue train radio Metronet was rolled out in Sydney in 1994 at the same time a very similar radio system called „Cab Secure Radio“ was deployed in the UK and other parts of the world. In early 2000 a newer radio network was developed based in Europe on the popular GSM standard, moving away from an analogues network to digital voice improved the voice quality, reducing the unwanted static that analogue communication was famous for. This digital train radio system (DTRS) was commissioned in 2017 in Sydney to replace the analogue Metronet and improve rail communications.

However the pace of change by mobile phone utilities occurred quickly, GSM (a second generation technology) which DTRS is based on is now almost obsolete; we have all come to love the benefits of advanced 4th generation mobile phone technology. In the railway sector, there is considerable interest in what technology will be used to replace DTRS, how it will be developed and when it will be implemented.

My research looks at these issues to identify how a modem broadband 4th generation mobile technology can be developed to provide all the mission critical communication needed to operate trains along with the benefits that high speed broadband data can deliver like real time CCTV. The risk adverse nature of railways consider any change as an increase in risk, so they have become change adverse in the process. However by keeping old technology, risk increases because the safety benefits associated with newer ways to communicate are not realized; there is also the technical challenges in keeping equipment that is not supported operational when replacement hardware components cannot be found.

Running a modern railways such as the one in Sydney, where you have a million passenger journeys a day really requires a modern communication system so safety is not compromised. The signalling system is reported to have a wrong side failure once in thousands of years but yet they happen for reasons no one every considered.

The train radio allows corrective action to happen immediately by the driver and signaller to prevent an accident from occurring; saving many people from serious injury or death if you have a train crash. Fourth generation mobile communication are now a proven technology that can provide the mission critical communication allowing GSM-R to be retired sooner rather than later.

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Source by Michael Alldritt

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