The Psychology of Fame

On studying the experience of fame and the perception of fame with psychological theories

Fame as we know is public recognition or renown and one’s reputation in the world. Fame is associated with our needs for power, status, recognition and our needs of achievement. The need for fame could be of various types and would be triggered or associated with different motives of doing greater social good, reaching high levels of achievement in one’s career, leaving one’s work and ideas for posterity, being productive or making money.

Celebrities as who are in showbiz or entertainment may have varied motives for seeking fame and these would be related to providing genuine entertainment to people as doing social good or simply as urge to act, sing or prove their talents, or they could be motivated to make money. Entertainers and actors or musicians are motivated by fame as it relates to social recognition and social status and love needs. Politicians on the other hand have directly public rather than personal reasons for their fame and this is related to doing social good and serving the public as well as reaching a point in their career that would indicate higher achievements. Politicians or social leaders are motivated by fame as it relates to social power, reputation and power or status needs. Writers, philosophers, scientists and intellectuals are however primarily motivated by fame as a need to keep something for posterity, and to use their creativity, to do something exalted and go beyond human limitations of existence. Intellectuals, philosophers and sometimes scientists are motivated by fame as it relates to immortality and intellectual or creative leadership although they also have social recognition needs and social status, power and sometimes material needs. Although generally writers and intellectuals are less motivated by their basic needs of love and security and more motivated by needs of self realization and sublimation through creativity, intellectuals may at times crave love, recognition and even power. In case of geniuses and enlightened intellectuals like Einstein, Buddha or Newton, fame needs are primarily a need to establish intellectual superiority and leave knowledge and enlightenment for the future generations.

Freud has explained needs of recognition with sex drives as high sex drives would also mean a genuine striving towards achievement. Aggressive, competitive personalities or simply high sexual individuals would have stronger achievement, recognition, power needs and the genius according to Freud is constantly guided by a need to sublimate the sexual desires through creative output. Fame needs in the genius is thus only covert rather than overt and fame is seen as reward for other types of behaviour and more overt needs such as creative pursuit.

So the creative genius is one who is completely addicted and caught into the process of creativity and in many cases, is unable to lead a normal life and fame happens either in his lifetime or posthumously mainly as a reward. This reward in lifetime then reinforces further creative achievement and a positive cycle ensures lasting fame of genius, immortalizing them or their contributions. The psychology of fame is thus explained in two ways – the experience of fame and the perception of fame. Fame can have two perspectives suggesting what are the motives of fame in individuals and also highlighting how fame affects people who are not famous or how fame is perceived by others. Fame as experienced by the celebrity writer or actor, scientist, musician or artist could be thus explained with Maslow’s theory of needs, as such individuals are driven by needs of love and status or self realization.

Fame is also explained with Erikson’s stages of human psychosocial development as individuals strive for status, power, recognition during late adulthood and middle age as these years bring generativity and are significant in establishing one’s lasting influence in the world. Sex drive as the basis for fame or recognition through achievement is also studied in Freudian analysis. Fame as experienced is distinct from fame as perceived as the individuals who are not famous look up to famous individuals as role models.

Theories explaining narcissistic behavior would suggest that generally individuals who see or project themselves in the celebrities or famous people or can relate to them in a specific way would show envy, awe or admiration towards these public figures. Generally youngsters become fan of young celebrities and older people are admirers of older celebrities and age seems to be a major factor in this relationship. Narcissism suggests that since we love ourselves we would admire those celebrities or famous individuals who resemble us in some way, possibly in terms of intellect or tastes, in age, looks, mannerisms or background.

Thus a German Jewish physicist working in quantum theory and settled in America might find that he has a lot common with Einstein and could admire Einstein not only because of his achievements but also because of his background and life history. Then the question remains why are some people more famous than others and why do some reach the level of immortalized fame even in their lifetime? For example in recent history Mahatma Gandhi, Nelson Mandela, Martin Luther King, Aung San Suu Kyi have all found unprecedented fame and iconic status in their homeland and worldwide. The reason for this is their inherent ability to relate to the people in some way and people could also connect to them even from a distance. Maybe it is in their words, their behavior, their ideology, their dynamism and energy, they have the ability to connect with all.

Geniuses can immediately attract people left and right, they attract all sorts of men and women and this power of attracting people is the strength of genius and this is solely responsible for genuine fame, rather than hyped celebrity culture which is more based on superficial media attention and sexualisation of women and even men. The celebrity culture is a modern phenomenon and is not just superficial but even marks temporary fad rather than lasting contribution of individuals in the fields of art, science, literature or culture. However fame when it relates to genius or men and women of exceptional talent and ability, would be lasting and is able to influence many people.

Apart from narcissism, fame perception is explained with psychoanalytic defense mechanisms of projection and identification. We project our own wishes on others and when we find other people fulfilling needs that are our own, we feel happy, For example if you have a deep wish to dance exceptionally well, when Michael Jackson performed in his shows or albums, you may have felt ecstatic as you projected your wish of dancing on him which he was fulfilling. You perceive Michael Jackson as famous because he could dance and could successfully flaunt his talents. So your wishes become a part of a famous person and you begin identifying with such people as if they are a part of you. Similarly if you are female and want to look beautiful, you may see pictures of young Liz Taylor or Marilyn Monroe as ideal representations of beauty and when you cannot become them or cannot look like them, you become admirers of them.

Thus you perceive them as famous because they are beautiful. Thus we see experiencing fame is more about fulfilling our needs of power and recognition of love and status and also our basic life or sex drives. Perception of fame on the other hand is about using defense, and about projecting our needs, or identifying with famous people through narcissism and other responses and there would be envy or admiration when fame is perceived. Not all of us perceive fame and react to it and although perception of fame almost always involves some form of subtle connection or admiration or even hatred or discomfort, the reactions to such perception may not always be very predictable or simplified. For example a scientist or an academic may be apparently indifferent towards Hollywood actors but once he perceives or engages in their life events or celebrity status, he might find the fame discordant for his level of thinking and intellect and return to his indifference.

The psychology of fame is thus about studying the experiences of the famous people and the underlying principles that could explain these experiences of fame and reasons for the fame; yet it is also about perception of fame and studying how and why fame is perceived in a certain way by most people and what are the underlying dynamics involved.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg



Source by Saberi Roy

Weddings and Ancient Kingdoms

Several months ago I was browsing through a list of China's 41 World Heritage Sites that includes famous travel spots such as the Temple of Heaven and the Summer Palace. I was surprised to see that most of the sites where travel spots I've never been to and many that I had never even heard of. I decided then and there to see as many of these sites ASAP starting with a site in the nearby city of Jian called "Capital Cities and Tombs of the Ancient Koguryo Kingdom".

God must smile on fools, drunks and travelers because around 3 weeks ago a good friend of mine invited me back back to her home town with her husband and her to attend their wedding. Where was her home town? The city of Jian. Honestly, I would have accepted her invitation no matter where her home town was!

A little background info on the "Capital Cities and Tombs of the Ancient Koguryo Kingdom".

From 37 BCE to 668 CE there was a Kingdom called Koguryo with territory that covered modern day central and southern Manchuria and central and northern Korea. The founders of Koguryo are believed to have been refugees from Korea and people from local tribes and ethnic groups.

Through interaction with the Chinese Han and later Wei Dynasties, alliances and warfare, the Koguryo Kingdom reached its peak around 450 CE and rule three quarters of the Korean Peninsula and China's Manchuria. Internal conflict and hostilities with the Sui and Tang Dynasties weakened the Kingdom and it was finally destroyed by an alliance of the Tang Dynasty and the Silla, a Korean Kingdom to the south of Koguryo.

The legacy of the Koguryo Kingdom includes 40 tombs and the ruins of two capital cities at Jian.

The Wedding

The wedding was a smashing success. The bride was beautiful, the groom handsome, their union romantic, the spokes moving and profound, the food delicious and the alcohol plentiful. None of the wedding guests drank too much bai jiu (extremely potent Chinese white wine) and urinated in public, vomited outside the restaurant or made appropriate gestures to other guests of the opposite sex.

The only drawback with the wedding is there were no kisses, hugs or emotional displays of affection between the married couple. A typical traditional Chinese wedding that was very business like and practical.

Visiting the Tombs and Ruins

With the wedding out of the way, I was free the following day to see the tombs and ruins. From talking to some other guests at the wedding that lived in Jian, I found out t hat there were only two sites worth seeing. They were the ruins of an ancient city to the north west of Jian and a General's Tomb to the north east.

Every one I spoke to was surprised I was so keen to travel to these sites and told me the sites were nothing special. Fair enough. Different people like different things and not every one has the travel bug.

Had a ticket home on a bus leaving Jian 3:00 pm that afternoon which left 4-5 hours to see the two sites. Just enough time if I go directly from the second site to the bus station. Armed with the names of the sites written in Chinese on a piece of paper and a rough estimate of a fair taxi fare I set out for site number one, the General's Tomb or Jiangjunfen Tomb.

General's Tomb

After 3 attempts I found a taxi driver who was happy with a 10rmb taxi fare and set out to see the first part of Jian's World Heritage Site. The Tomb did not take long to reach and once there, the taxi driver asked if I wanted him to wait for me. Thanks but no thanks, this site would take an hour or two to see. Paid 30rmb for a ticket at the site entrance and set off down a clearly marked and well trodden path.

The first time I've seen a Chinese tomb with that structure and was surprised by the size. The sloping stone terraces of the tomb reminded me of the smaller Aztec Pyramids. Easy to see that the tomb architecture was not influenced by Han who are China's dominant ethnic group.

The tomb is believed to be the burial tomb of King Gwanggaeto or his son King Jangsu. The tomb is made of 1,100 stone blocks and the tomb is 75 meters wide on each side and 11 meters high.

There was no access to the inside of the tomb so after several laps, it was time to move on. The next stop down the path was the No.1 subordinate tomb. This was a tomb for a member of the Koguro royal family. No where near the size of the General's Tomb but fascinating. The tomb has a very basic structure with a chamber surrounded by 3 huge stones, covered by a huge stone and blocked by another huge stone that has since been moved.

That was it. Nothing else to see or do at that site apart from browsing the obligatory gift shop near the site entrance. Next stop was the ruins of the ancient city.

Hidden Ruins

Caught a bus back into Jian city then negotiated another 10rmb taxi trip to the site of the ruined city.

At the ticket office and site entrance, there are two path ways to take. One pathway winds up into the hills and leads to the southern city gate. The other path heads into a field full of mounds (ancient tombs) that are clearly visible from the road. The mounds were not too impressive so I took the path to the ruined city.

The path went past a ruined western city wall and finished at a viewing platform overlooking a small structure called the watch tower. No ruined city so I backtracked down the path to see if I missed a turn. Nope. No turns or side paths. Just the one track from the ticket office to the viewing platform. Bumped into a group of Korean tourists with a tour guide and followed them to see if they knew the way to the ruined city. Nope. They just went up to the viewing platform like I did.

The ruined city had to be there somewhere so I went back to the ticket office and spoke to one of the guides there asking where the ruined city was. She took me inside office to a room with maps and background information on the site (all in Chinese) and explained that there was no actual ruined city to see. All the surrounding land was heavily cultured and all the ruins above ground on the surface had been gradually taken way way and used by local residents and farmers over the last 1300 years.

Piles of Rock

The only other part of the site to see was the field of 40 tombs. The country was beautiful with the field of tombs surrounded by lush green hills. Very picturesque. I wish I could say the same about the tombs. The tombs were either grassy mounds or piles of rock. Very plain, ordinary and uninspiring and definitely not what you'd expect for a world heritage site.

I read a review online before going to Jian where a foreign tourist to the site called the tombs a pile of rock. At that time I just thought he was being excessively harsh and lacking in appreciation. After seeing the tombs I have to say I agree with him. There was only three things to see site. A ruined wall, a partially restored watch tower and a field of tombs that were either piles of rock or over grown mounds.

Back Home

The two sites, the General's Tomb and the ruined city and tombs took less than 2 hours to see and thoroughly explore. With nothing left to do I headed to the bus station where I had three hours to ponder what makes a site eligible for inclusion on the list of world heritage sites. The weather was outstanding I really enjoyed getting out and visiting the sites but I expected a little more from a world heritage site.

Some world heritage sites like the Great Wall and the Forbidden City are worth flying half way around the world to see. Other sites like the "Capital Cities and Tombs of the Ancient Koguryo Kingdom" are great to see if you are already in the area but I would not recommend traveling long distances to see them.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg



Source by Brendon Lang

Freelancer Writers – Charge What You’re Worth!

Ah yes … we work for money, don’t we.

And we should. After all, you wouldn’t choose to spend your afternoon writing a press release announcing ACME Balloon Rental’s new vice president of inflation instead of working on your novel, would you? Nor would you pop out of bed in the morning thinking, „Finally, today I get to write a brochure about widgets instead of finishing my screenplay!“

The fact is, as freelance writers, we work to eat, and to eat, we must charge for our work. But there’s the rub: What should we charge?

Let’s cut to the chase. I currently base my fees on $75 per hour for anything clients ask me to do, whether it’s writing, ghostwriting or editing. It doesn’t matter whether it’s for a brochure, Web site, book, press release or what. It’s $75 per hour. (That rate is higher than some writers charge and less than others charge. The geographical market has a lot to do with it.)

My fees are almost never discussed when I work with repeat clients. They know what to expect and seem to be okay with it. If it looks like a project is going to cost more than the client is used to, I bring this up for approval. The last thing I want is to give a good client an unpleasant surprise when he or she opens my bill.

My fees are always discussed with new clients. I usually don’t tell them what I charge per hour. That really tells them little, because it’s only half of the equation. One writer might take five hours to do the project while another would take 10 hours. So simply saying „I charge $75 per hour“ means nothing. That’s why with new clients I estimate what I would charge for a project, based on all the information I have been given. I also let the client know to expect changes in the estimate if the project’s parameters change midstream. An up-front estimate eliminates sticker shock when the client receives the invoice. (By the way, you could call it a „bid,“ but I like „estimate“ because it seems a bit more pliable.)

Ultimately, of course, you can only charge what the market will bear, but the fee structure I’ve just described has worked for me for years. I have, of course, periodically raised my rate.

Don’t be afraid to turn down clients who aren’t willing to pay you what you’re worth. If you keep saying yes to these people, you will get locked into a low-level of clientele and will always be underpaid. Believe me, there are companies and individuals out there who are willing to pay the price for a good writer. If you are a good writer, you just have to find them. But you won’t find them if you’re swamped with jobs that keep you perpetually unpaid and overworked.

I have a pet peeve: writers who low-ball their rates just to get work. They make life difficult for other hardworking, professional freelancers, and ultimately they cut their own throats. I recently went online to check out what writers were charging and being offered for online articles and content. I was appalled and frankly infuriated to read that some online publishers were offering 1/10th of one cent per word! Once cent per word was fairly standard. That sort of compensation is a slap in the face to serious writers, and any writer who accepts it is doing real damage to the profession as a whole.

Let’s put things in perspective: Yesterday a garage door repairman charged me $89 to fix one of our garage door openers. He spent – I’m not exaggerating – less than five minutes! The day before, my sister paid a plumber $180 to fix a leaking connection. He spend just over 30 minutes on the job. And they’re asking writers to work for maybe $2 per hour? And some writers will do it? I can’t think about this without wanting to break something.

One last thought. Some writers wonder whether to charge on a per-word basis. This may work for magazine articles and the like, but is lunacy for most types of projects. It doesn’t take into account the time you might spend on research and in meetings, or the approval process and other variables. I once spent three days in meetings and creative time to come up with a small college’s three-word billboard headline. Had I charged per word, I would have had to charge over $400 per word. Had I told the client that I would charge $400 per word, I wouldn’t have landed the job. But telling them that I would charge about $1200 for three days of work seemed reasonable to them. And it was. In fact, it was a steal. They used the headline for years in all their marketing materials.

In my dreams, I regularly get $400 per word for 2,000-word travel articles … in my dreams

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg



Source by Steve Osborne

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Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Ethical Link Building Service

In the area of search engine optimization, ethical link building is defined as creating more inbound links to a particular website, so as to increase traffic to it and increase its ranking in the search engine results, in position and in the number of links.

These ethical links may be of different sources and have different values attached to them, though the bottom line is increasing traffic to the site:

Editorial – these are attracted because of the good content of the site – they are not paid for

Resource – a set of resource links called hyperlinks to the website considered to be useful. These are also not paid for

Acquired – These are paid for links or organically obtained links.

Reciprocal – mutually beneficial links to each others sites set up by known parties

Forum signature – where forum communities allow outbound links in a member’s signature

Blog – leaving an option to comment on a blog is attached with the link to the blog or website

Directory – these links are recommended by directories which one subscribes to for listing, paid or unpaid.

Social bookmarking – is when you categorize and save pages, it is done at a public location on the web which is accessible to search engines.

Image – is the same as the above linking, but concerning images.

White hat link building

White hat linking strategies result in value added to the end users, and are actively implemented by the website owners.

linking strategies use spamming and non -friendly user linking strategies to garner traffic.

Grey hat linking – lies between the two- examples are reward led blog linking, spurious sponsorship etc.

Needless to say, quality has to be the bedrock of the link building, whatever type it may be

Your contribution in link building

There are many websites which outline methods of ethical linking. Some points to be kept in mind are:

Increase the content of your website

Try to segment your target audience. Once that is done, you have an idea of the top performing domains for each segment. Now one only has to create search terms that will create links from these domains to your website.

These top domains are vast, consisting of many niches. So don’t be despondent if the same domains show up again and again. They are also diverse such as websites, radio, local newspapers, podcasts, social groups, mailing lists, etc. Deriving links to each of these is a sustained relationship and helps build brand awareness.

Targeted Link building

This is the process of trying to individually bring links to a specific URLs or domains, usually to individual pages.

This is done when you are already in a top ten or 20 position in the search engine results. Or it is performing well already from the point of view of conversions.

This can be done by:

Sending out emails

Broadcast on social pages – social sharing

Paid amplification – advertising,

There are guides to the process of ethical link building explained in written blogs and through videos.

White hat ethical link building is one of the foremost techniques in digital marketing today. It brings great value to the customer and the marketer.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg



Source by Syed Faris Hussain

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Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Why is America afraid of strong African-American Women?

My mouth nearly dropped to the floor when the announcer said baby boomer diva Vivica A. Fox and her partner were in the bottom two in the Dancing with the Stars competition. How could that be? She and fellow competitor Monique Coleman brave stellar performances and, according to the professional judges, they both earned the right to move on to the next round.

But wait a minute! America had a say in who would stay and who would have to leave. So I guess that explains why Ms. Vivica was voted off the show.

Let's face it, since the beginning of this year's dancing competition, the actress has made us all aware of how good she is. If she did not say it verbally, her facial expressions surely did. There were even times when we might've thought she was dancing alone since she rarely allowed her partner to make any comments. But neglectless, she gave a top notch performance week after week which has to make you question the actions of the voting public. Maybe if Vivica's demeanor had been more like Monique's she would be moving on to the next round. Maybe if she had a sad story to tell about a near crippling injury during childhood, she would be returning to the dance floor. But no – -all this self-confident diva had was "attitude" and plenty of it. That may have proven to be more than America was willing to tolerate.

I can just hear someone in America's Heartland saying as she is dialing in her voice, "Vivica, darling, you can dance around and look gorgeous all you want but we rather do not have you point out your superior dancing skills and exuberate such an Air of confidence. "

Not long ago, there was another African-American female who displayed an air of confidence and made a lot of noise on "The View." She gone now too.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg



Source by Beverly Mahone