Categories of Ethical Dilemmas in Business

First published in Exchange, the magazine of the Brigham Young University School of Business, the following twelve categories were developed to cover the root or cause of most ethical business dilemmas that one might encounter in their jobs. I have summarized them to keep them short and simple.

1. Taking Things That Don’t Belong To You

Everything from taking highlighters from the storage room, to sending personal mail through the mailroom, to downloading unauthorized games to play on your work computer fall into this category. A CFO of a major corporation took a cab from the airport to his home in the city. When he asked the cabbie for receipt, he was handed a full book of blank receipts. Apparently this dilemma of accurately reporting business expenses involves more than just one employee.

2. Saying Things That You Know Are Not True

When a car salesperson insists to a customer that a used car has not been in a previous accident, when it has, an ethical breach has occurred. When a clerk in a store assures a customer that a product has a money-back guarantee, when only trade-ins are allowed, another ethical violation occurred (and perhaps a violation of the law).

3. Giving Or Allowing False Impressions

There is an urban legend in which 2 CD’s were being sold on a TV infomercial that claimed that that all the hits of the 1980’s were on the CDs. The infomercial emphasized over and over again that all songs were performed by the original artists. When they received the CDs, upon closer inspection, they found that all songs had been covered by a band called The Original Artists. While technically true, the impression given by the infomercial was false.

4. Buying Influence or Engaging in Conflict of Interest

When a company awards a construction contract to an organization owned by the brother of the attorney general, or when a county committee who is charged with choosing a new road construction company is traveling around the state looking at roads at the expense of one of the bidders, a conflict of interest arises which might affect the results of that choice.

5. Hiding or Divulging Information

Failing to divulge information from the results of a study on the safety of a new product, or choosing to take your companies proprietary product information to a new job are examples that fall into this category.

6. Taking Unfair Advantage

Have you ever wondered why there seem to be so many product safety rules and procedures? It is primarily the result of laws passed by government institutions to protect the consumer from companies that previously took unfair advantage of them because of their lack of knowledge or through complex contractual obligations.

7. Committing Acts of Personal Decadence

Over time, it has become increasing clear that the acts of employees outside of work can have a negative effect on a businesses image. This is one of the primary reasons companies are minimizing social interactions or events, outside of the office, so that drug or alcohol related events can not be tracked back to the company.

8. Perpetuating Interpersonal Abuse

At the heart of this category of ethical misbehavior is the abuse of employees through sexual harassment, verbal lashing, or public humiliation by a company leader.

9. Permitting Organizational Abuse

When an organization chooses to operate in another country, it sometimes butts up against social culture in which child labor, demeaning work environments or excessive hours are required. It is at this point that the leaders of the company have a choice…whether to perpetuate that abuse or alleviate it.

10. Violating Rules

In some cases, people or organizations violate rules to expedite a process or decision. In many of these cases, the results would have been the same regardless, but by violating the rules or required procedures for that outcome, they can potentially scar the reputation of the organization they work for.

11. Condoning Unethical Actions

Suppose you are at work one day and you notice that a colleague of yours is using petty cash for personal purchases and fail to report it. Perhaps you know that a new product in development has safety issues, but you don’t speak out. In these examples, failing to do right creates a wrong.

12. Balancing Ethical Dilemmas

What about a situation that would be considered neither right, nor wrong? What should be done here? Should Google or Microsoft do business in China when human rights violations are committed daily? Sometimes an organization must balance the need to do business with any ethical dilemmas that might arise from doing business.

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Source by John Bascom

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Do Orgasms Relieve Anxiety?

Great sex on a regular basis can, in fact, relieve or eliminate stress and anxiety. Sexually active adults are generally less stressed, calmer, and happier. Why? Sex causes a release of oxytocin and endorphins, similar to those released during exercise. The release of these chemicals helps bring about a sense of calmness and clarity. But here’s the ironic truth, or shall we say the „catch-69“: although a hot sex life can help relieve stress and anxiety – stress and anxiety can kill a hot sex life.

For many adults, going without sex can lead to the buildup of even more mental tension, which, if left unchecked, can ultimately bring about a lessened sense of self-worth. Once that occurs, the sex machine inside you can shut down completely, blocking you from the benefits of this very natural and beautiful act. Furthermore, according to a study sponsored by the University of Gottingen in Germany, sex-less people often take on more work to compensate for their frustration. And taking on the increased labor results in – you got it – even less sex.

For you sexless adults, this isn’t to suggest that you rush out the door and find any willing libido to help kick-start a sex life for you. Selectiveness is key. It also doesn’t mean that staying home and using self-satisfaction techniques (masturbation) is an equal substitute to getting it on with someone special. Actually, if you can achieve orgasm alone, but cannot through sexual intercourse, you could have performance anxiety. Most doctors agree that the positive effects of sex on anxiety are magnified when you do it with someone who plays an integral role in your life. Often, just seeing someone you love and trust with your feelings is enough to provide relief from anxiety.

A BIG „O“ IS JUST WHAT THE DOCTOR ORDERED

As beautiful and satisfying as the act of sex can be, it is but a crescendo or journey to that final, often euphoric resting place called orgasm. It is the conclusion of the plateau phase of intercourse. For women, there is some debate surrounding the pleasure and effectiveness of clitoral versus vaginal orgasms. Fact is they both feel great and provide anxiety-reversing results. Here are some of the physical and mental reactions that occur during orgasm:

  • Breathing, pulse rate and blood pressure continue to rise during sex.
  • Muscle tension and blood-vessel engorgement reach a peak.
  • Sometimes orgasm comes with a grasping-type muscular reflex of the hands and feet.
  • An abundant release of oxytocin and endorphins occurs.
  • Following orgasm, a reduction in baseline blood pressure happens.
  • Ultimately, tension is released producing an unrivaled relaxed state of mind

When the sexual crescendo concludes, the recirculation of blood back through the brain and the balance of the body brings on a momentary sense of welcomed weakness followed by a restoration of clarity, calm, and newfound confidence (especially if your partner achieves orgasm too). It feels like all your fears are literally lifted and taken away.

RECOMMENDED SEX FREQUENCY

Relationship experts recommend couples have sex at least 2 to 3 times per week. Of course, singles might see numbers double or even triple those for couples. Some people have short sexual breakaways during the day, affectionately referred to as „quickie sex“, and report seeing dramatic improvement in confidence, pep, and life accomplishments. Regardless of how often you do it, structure your goal around eliminating the anxiety first and then see if the great sex comes around. Anxiety can be dangerous, sometimes resulting in death. Aside from medicinal approaches, there are many alternative ways of effectively treating anxiety. Read articles and reports on Natural Anxiety Relief Options.

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Source by Katelyn Tinker

Photographer Diane Arbus

born: March 14, 1923, New York City

died: July 26, 1971, New York City (suicide)

Diane Arbus (pronounced as „Dee-an“) was an American photographer known for her disturbing portraits of people on the fringes of society: sideshow freaks, nudists, transvestites. She also had a career as fashion photographer, along with her husband Allan Arbus, billing themselves as „Allan and Diane Arbus.“ After that she had a career on her own doing magazine work, which sometimes included her offbeat subjects, but more often focused on celebrities or fashion. No matter what the subject was, she photographed them all in her own anti-glamorous style. Her subjects often objected to the results. Norman Mailer once said that „giving a camera to Diane Arbus is like putting a live grenade in the hands of a child.“ Remarkably, her productive career spanned only about the last 10 years of her life, cut short by her suicide in1971, at the age of 48.

Diane Arbus was born Diane Nemerov on March 14, 1923, to wealthy parents, Gertrude Russek and David Nemerov, a partner with Russek’s department store. She had an older brother, Howard Nemerov, who would later become a well-known poet, literary critic, and Poet Laureate of the US. Her younger sister, Renee (married names: Sparkia, then Brown), became an artist. They grew up in expensive New York apartments on Central Park West and later on Park Avenue.

At age 13 she fell in love with Allan Arbus, who worked at her family’s store. The family was against the match, but Diane married him as soon as she turned 18. Allan learned photography while in the Army, and he taught Diane as he learned. After the war, they began doing fashion photography work as a team, beginning with work for Russek’s. Soon they were working for such clients as Esquire, Glamour, Harper’s Bazaar, and Vogue. They continued this work through most of the 1950s. Diane and Allan both came to hate fashion photography for its superficiality. Meanwhile, the Arbuses had two daughters, Doon, born in 1945, and Amy, born in 1954.

From about 1955 to 1957, Diane studied photography with Lisette Model at The New School in New York. Model encouraged Diane Arbus to pursue her own offbeat photographic instincts, and in 1956 Diane left the fashion business to Allan. In 1960, she had her first photo-essay published in Esquire magazine, called „The Vertical Journey.“ In a series of 6 photos, she juxtaposed wealth and squalor in New York City. From that time on, she was able to make a living from magazine assignments and occasional teaching jobs.

The style Arbus developed included such elements as photographing in a square format, using an on-camera flash, and taking the photo in the subject’s own surroundings. She was also adept at catching her subjects in their unguarded moments. Critics often saw her work as exploitative, especially when the subject was freaks or the retarded. But Diane was drawn to these people for reasons of her own, related to her sheltered upbringing as a child of privilege. She later said „I grew up feeling immune and exempt from circumstance. One of the things I suffered from was that I never felt adversity. I was confirmed in a sense of unreality.“ She was drawn to people who had to struggle through life in ways she could only imagine.

In 1959, Diane and Allan Arbus separated. They continued to see each other often, and Diane continued to use Allan’s darkroom and to seek his advice on photography. By 1969 they were divorced. Allan remarried and moved to California to pursue his life-long interest in acting. His best known role to date has been as Sidney Freedman, the psychiatrist, on the TV show M*A*S*H.

Diane received 2 Guggenheim grants, to photograph American rites and customs, in 1963 and 1967. In 1967, the Museum of Modern Art included her work in its groundbreaking New Documents exhibit, which also featured newcomers Garry Winogrand and Lee Friedlander. This was the show that brought Diane Arbus to widespread public attention for the first time. By the end of her life, only four years later, she had established her reputation as a pioneer of the New Documentary style.

Having struggled with depression her entire life, in July 1971, Arbus committed suicide in her Greenwich Village apartment, by both taking barbiturates and slashing her wrists. (It was officially determined that the barbiturate overdose actually killed her.) Marvin Israel, her friend and mentor in her later years, found the body. Her suicide created an increased interest in, and mystique about, Diane Arbus.

The year after her death, MOMA held a retrospective of her work, which was the most-attended solo photography exhibit in that museum’s history. The accompanying book, titled Diane Arbus: An Aperture Monograph, and edited by Doon and Marvin Israel, became a best-seller, and was considered for many years the definitive collection on Diane Arbus. In 2003, there was a Diane Arbus exhibit at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, which travelled throughout the US and Europe. The accompanying book, Diane Arbus Revelations, contains 200 photos, biographical material, and personal notes and images.

In December 2007, the estate of Diane Arbus donated her complete archives and photographic equipment to the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Interesting side notes

  • One of Arbus‘ well-known photos is a very close cropped shot of a baby’s face, which, unlike much of her work, is actually quite beautiful. That baby is Anderson Cooper, now the host of Anderson Cooper 360 on CNN. Google „Diane Arbus Anderson Cooper“ to see it.
  • In 1963, Diane’s sister Renee, along with her then-husband Roy Sparkia, created a series of eight illuminated panels that still decorate the north corridor of the Empire State Building lobby.

For more info on Diane Arbus, including a short documentary film and Diane Arbus book reviews, go to the Brooks Photopedia Diane Arbus page.

The definitive book on Diane Arbus‘ work is Diane Arbus Revelations. It contains large reproductions of all of her iconic work, and plenty of lesser-known works, interspersed with commentary and biographical information.

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Source by Brooks Gatlin

Coming to Terms

I first started in the Internet business about nine years ago or so. At the time, I was even then concerned about having already missed the boat. ECommerce has only grown since then. I started by designing a basic website called "Independent's Day", or "IndieDay" for short. I did not even have a .com at the time! It was all about selling independent musicians' CD's. It failed miserably.

The next thing I tried was a crafting site with my wife. She was into rubber stamping at the time, and so we started making stamps and selling them online. I designed most of the stamps myself, and we had a great time doing it together. She minded the craft side of the business, and I minded the online sales. We did pretty well. But my wife has very troublesome pregnancies, and so before our first was born, we decided to shut down.

But in the meantime I had learned a lot.

Then came Mark Hansen Music, where my personal professional passion is. Since then, I've added a number of sites, both commercial and non, to my list of active sites.

I tell you all that background to tell you this: I've seen a LOT of change. And a major part of that change has been centered in the search engines. And I'm not just talking about Who's the current King of the Hill, or which one is doing promotions with which one, or who is buying out who. I'm talking about the changes in the way they rank the sites that list with them.

Back in the old days, the META tags entrusted supreme. Especially the Keyword Tag. You had to have a huge keyword list of all the things people might search for in your list. And that list was hidden in the deep coding of your site. Invisible to the public, seen only by nosy geeks and search engine spiders. People used to do all kinds of tricks, like putting multiple repeats of their keywords in the list, and coming up with hundreds of irrelevant keywords. They'd put 10 or 20 repeats of a dirty word in their META keywords because that's what people were supposedly searching for.

But then, someone else would come along and repeat that word 50 or 100 times, and the whole thing kinda snowballed out of control. Even the dirty sites got into the game, including including mainstream keywords in their list. There was a time in the late 90's where it appeared like you could not even search for "mom's apple pie recipes" without getting at least two or three dirty sites in the list.

Fortunately, that all stopped working. The search engines decided that was absurd and did two things. First of all, they started penalizing people who had too much repetition in the keyword list. Second, they started paying more attention to the keyword matches in the actual website.

Then the webmasters started including huge lists of keywords at the bottom of their pages, sometimes hidden by making the text color the same as the background color. Then the search engines started checking and penalizing for that, and the cat-and-mouse game continued.

Finally we arrive at where we are today. It's still a constantly changing flux, with the search engines constantly adapting their ranking criteria, and the webmasters trying to game their systems. And each search engine still does things a bit differently. But even still, it's all starting to settle into some basic constants.

One of those constants is that the META tag keyword list is basically ignored now. What's most important by far, now, is keyword matches in the actual content of the site, especially in the visible text of the site.

That shift is now so complete, that I actually prefer not to refer to them by the phrase, "key words" any more. That harkens back to the old META tag system so strongly that I think it's confusing. Instead I use "Search Terms". I think that "Search Terms" better describes their function. It's what people are searching for. A search term is what you want to optimize your page for. It's the term that you work into your site in all the right places, so that when someone searches for it, you rank high.

And picking the right search terms for your optimization efforts is the new key. But it can be tricky.

You want to find search terms that are first of all, relevant to your site. That's what the filth purveyors found. When they were appearing on clean searches, rather than drawing people in, they were making people mad. Using irrelevant search terms just makes it harder for people to find what they're looking for, whether or not it's you.

Then you need to find words that are high in demand, and low in supply. Let me clarify. In economics an item is valuable when it is both rare and wanted. Like a diamond. If diamonds looked like raisins, it would not matter how rare they were, because nobody would want them.

Search terms are the same way. The most valuable term for your website is one that lots of people are looking for, but not so many people are using in their sites. If I go into Overture.com's Keyword Selector Tool ( http://inventory.overture.com/d/searchinventory/suggestion ), and search for "Music", I would find that in March of 2005, 9,963,606 searches were done for the term. Wow! 9 million +! That's a whopping lot! That means that "Music" is in high demand! What a great search term, right?

Well, hold on. Let's jump to Google.com for a minute, and search for the same term. Hmmm … Let's see … Not much … Only about 508 MILLION websites are competitive for ranking using that term. Let me say that again: 500+ MILLIO N. OK, that's a lot of competition. Supply is way high, here.

So, maybe I need to narrow things down a bit. Let's try "Rock Music". OK, that's a bit better, only 96 million sites. How about "Christian rock music"? That's more my style anyway … 13 million.

Now that's still very high, but you can see how focusing my search terms has made the numbers more and more manageable. I could keep narrowing and trying different search terms, bouncing between Google and Overture, testing supply and demand until I found some search terms that had the best balance between the two. Not so much competition, but still in demand.

Then, I'd return to my website, and I'll make sure that those search terms were written sensibly into my text and titles there on my main page and my sub pages. And that's one way I've improved my ranking.

I'd work on my terms!

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Source by Mark Hansen

Funk Guitar Mastery: The Complete Guide to Playing Funk Rhythm Guitar

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