Hubble Uncovers An Elusive, Doomed Star

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Stars are like people–they send their dazzling light through the Cosmos for a little while, but do not last forever in the universal tragicomedy of our existence. Supernovae herald the fatal explosions of massive stars that have come to the end of that long stellar road, after having burned their necessary supply of nuclear-fusing fuel–and have perished brilliantly and beautifully, as they scream explosively into oblivion. One of the ways that astronomers search for clues, hinting at how these massive stars blow themselves up, is to go on the hunt for what is termed the progenitor star of the supernova. In order to accomplish their quest, astronomers carefully sift through archival telescope images and try to determine the precise location and identity of the progenitor star before it blew itself to pieces. In November 2018, for the first time, a California Institute of Technology (Caltech) team of astronomers in Pasadena announced that they have likely discovered just such a stellar progenitor for a supernova class known as Type Ic (pronounced „one-C“). Of all the classes of supernovae, this is the only one that did not have a known stellar progenitor until their discovery. For this reason, its identification was considered by astronomers to be a kind of Holy Grail.

The Type Ic supernova, dubbed SN 2017, was first spotted in May 2017 by astronomers using the Tenagra Observatories in Arizona. It is situated in a spiral galaxy named NGC 3938, that is located about 65 million light-years from Earth. The Caltech astronomers were able to successfully track this supernova’s progenitor using archival images from NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope (HST), obtained back in 2007.

„An alert was sent out when the supernova was initially found. You can’t sleep once that happens and have to mobilize to try to find the progenitor to the explosion. Within a few weeks after the supernova was discovered, we found a candidate using both new and archival Hubble images. The new images were essential for pinpointing the candidate progenitor’s location,“ noted Dr. Schuyler Van Dyk in a November 15, 2018 JPL Press Release. Dr. Van Dyk is a staff scientist at IPAC, which is a science and data center located at Caltech.

The progenitor turned out to be a luminous and very hot star, and it is thought to be either a singly massive star 48 to 49 times solar-mass or a massive binary system in which the star that went supernova weighed-in at a hefty 60 to 80 times the mass of our Sun.

Type Ic Supernovae

Type Ic supernovae, and their close cousins Type Ib supernovae, are classifications of supernovae that result from the explosive core collapse of massive stars. These doomed stars have flung off, or have been more gently stripped of, their outer envelope of hydrogen gas. When Type Ic and Type Ib supernovae are compared to Type Ia supernovae, they do not show the absorption line of silicon. When compared to Type Ib, Type Ic supernovae are believed to have lost more of their original gaseous envelope, including most of their helium. Astronomers usually refer to the two types as „stripped core-collapse supernovae.“

All stars, regardless of their mass, churn out energy by way of the process of the nuclear-fusion of atomic elements, which creates heavier elements out of lighter ones. Unlike our relatively small Sun, more massive stars contain suffient mass to fuse elements that have an atomic mass greater than hydrogen and helium–albeit at progressively greater and greater temperatures and pressures. This increase results in a shorter „life“ for massive stars. Small stars, like our Sun, „live“ on the hydrogen-burning branch of the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram of Stellar Evolution for about 10 billion years. In dramatic contrast, massive stars „live“ fast and „die“ young. The more massive the star, the shorter its „life“. A hefty star fuses increasingly heavier atomic elements, commencing with hydrogen and helium, and then progressing through the familiar Periodic Table until a core of iron and nickel is formed. Because nuclear-fusion of iron or nickel manufactures no net energy output, no additional fusion can occur, leaving the nickel-iron core of the doomed massive star inert. Due to the lack of energy output creating the necessary outward thermal pressure to keep the heavy star bouncy against the relentless inward pull of its own gravity, the core shrivels. When the compacted mass of the inert iron and nickel core exceeds what is called the Chandrasekhar Limit of 1.4 solar-masses, radiation pressure cannot counter gravitational compression, and a cataclysmic implosion of the core occurs within seconds. At this point, lacking the support of the now-imploded inner core, the outer core of the erstwhile massive star collapses inward under the merciless force of gravity and attains a velocity of up to 23% the speed of light. The sudden, dramatic compression increases the temperature of the inner core to as much as 100 billion Kelvins. The collapse of the inner core is stopped by neutron degeneracy, resulting in the implosion to rebound and bounce outward. The energy of the expanding shock wave disrupts the overlying stellar material and accelerates it to escape velocity. A horrific, brilliant Type II supernova occurs, and where once there was a massive star there is a star no more. Depending on the hefty progenitor star’s mass, the souvenir that it leaves behind to remind the Universe of its former existence will be either a dense, city-sized neutron star or a stellar mass black hole.

Small stars go to their inevitable grand finale differently. Type Ia supernovae, unlike core-collapse Type II supernovae, do not originate from the funeral pyre of a massive progenitor star. Type Ia supernovae are the catastrophic leftovers of small stars, like our Sun, that have perished to become a type of dense stellar relic termed a white dwarf. Our Sun will never perish in the terrible beauty born from a Type Ia blast. This is because our Sun is a solitary Star. However, when small stars of our Sun’s mass dwell in a binary system with another still-living star, it’s a party ready to happen. If the dense, vampire-like white dwarf relentlessly gravitationally sips up its companion star’s material, it pays for its crime by „going critical.“ That is, the murderous white dwarf steals enough mass from its companion to attain the critical mass to blow itself to pieces–just like its more massive stellar kin. Alternatively, a Type Ia supernova can also occur when a duo of white dwarfs, composing a binary system, blast into one another. When this happens, it also results in a horrific Type Ia supernova explosion.

Piecing together how each of these supernova types (Type II, Type Ib, Type Ia, and Type Ic) occur provides a greatly improved understanding of how the most massive stars in the Universe evolve.

Uncovering An Elusive, Doomed Stellar Progenitor

Type Ic supernovae occur with the most massive stars. But we were surprised by how massive this one appears to be, and especially by the possibility of a massive double-star system as the progenitor. Although theories have existed for the last three decades that Type Ic supernovae could be the explosions of very massive single stars, alternative, more recent theories point toward stars of lower mass in binary systems as being the origins of these explosions,“ Dr. Van Dyk explained in the November 15, 2018 Caltech Press Release.

Type Ib and Type Ic differ from Type II because their stellar progenitors lose their outer envelopes of material surrounding their central cores before going supernova. Type Ib and Ic also differ from each other slightly in chemical composition.

„The origins of such explosions are relevant to the entire astronomical community, not just supernova researchers. The results have implications on ideas from star formation to stellar evolution and feedback into the galaxy,“ Dr. Ori Fox commented in the November 15, 2018 Caltech Press Release. Dr. Fox is a Support Scientist at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) in Baltimore, Maryland.

Dr. van Dyk continued to note in the same Press Release that „Astronomers have been trying to find this progenitor for some 20 years. Humans wouldn’t be here without supernovae–they make the chemical elements from which we are made.“

The astronomers also commented that they should be able to confirm with certainty whether they have identified the correct progenitor to the Type Ic explosion within a few years, using Hubble or the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope, planned to launch in 2021. As the supernova dims as predicted, the astronomers will have a clearer view of the region surrounding it. If the luminous progenitor candidate was correctly identified in archival images, then it will have disappeared and should not be detected in the new images. If the scientists still see the candidate progenitor, that means it was misidentified and some other hidden star was the true culprit behind the cataclysmic blast.

In Memory of Mark.

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Source by Judith E Braffman-Miller

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Best Hair Transplant – Find Out Which Method Is Right For Your Hair Loss Situation

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The best hair transplant procedure is a matter of debate among the medical world. There are essentially two different methods that dominate the world of hair transplantation today. They are the follicular unit transplant technique (FUT), and the follicular unit extraction technique (FUE). Each doctor will likely give you a different opinion, and will have different reasons for choosing one of these methods over the other. Here we will discuss the differences so that you can decide for yourself which one might be the best for you.

FUT is an older method of transplantation in which a strip of good hair is harvested from the back of the head, and the dissected into the individual follicular units. Those units can then be transplanted onto the balding areas. The donor area is then stitched closed and takes a few weeks to heal up. There will be a permanent scar, but it can be covered up by the hair around it.

FUE is a newer procedure that harvests the follicles one by one, directly from the head. This is achieved by using a small punch tool that removes the follicle from the head. Once an adequate amount of grafts are removed, they are then inserted into tiny slits in the balding area. There is no large scar left by this procedure, but there may be very small scars where the punch tool extracted the follicles from.

As far as which of these methods is the best hair transplant procedure goes, it really depends on your needs. If you do not want a large scar on the back of your head then FUE might be the right choice for you. This method is also preferable for people with very tight skin on their scalp, because the strip procedure will make the scalp even tighter when some skin is removed.

The FUT procedure is usually preferable for people who require a lot of work. This is because it is generally more efficient, and more hairs survive the transplant. It also takes less time to do an FUT so it is usually less expensive than FUE. The reason that FUE is less efficient is because sometimes the punch tool can inadvertently damage the follicle and that can weaken the chances that the follicle will survive.

If you really want to know about the best hair transplant procedure for you, I would definitely recommend calling or emailing a doctor who specializes in the practice. A quick consultation will allow them to assess your hair and determine exactly which method is perfect for you situation. Make sure that you do your research and find a doctor that is highly recommended by previous patients.

Whether you choose FUE or FUT, you are definitely choosing the best method to battle baldness. Transplantation is the only way to permanently fix the problem of balding, but it is a huge investment. Doing your research and making some phone calls will help you to put your mind at ease, and know that you have chosen the best hair transplant method.

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Work Towards Peace and Emotional Balance With Bach Flower Remedies

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Bach flower remedies were devised by Edward Bach, a Harley Street doctor, in the 1930s. He believed that physical illness wasoted in conflict within an individual, which indicated imbalance in some area of ​​their life. Dr Bach observed that people with physical and emotional problems recovered faster if they acknowledged the relationship between their emotions and physical health.

One of the most popular remedies is 'Five Flower', Dr Bach's only combination formula, which is used as a single remedy. This is used for times of emotional distress, including:

– Recovery from illness and trauma.
– Preparation for healing or therapy.
– For times of emergency, to diminish suffering.
– To tie anxiety, for example before visiting the dentist or traveling.
– To quieten animals.

The Five Flower remedy is a combination of Cherry Plum, Rock Rose, Clematis, Impatiens and Star of Bethlehem, which can be taken by itself or in combination with other remedies.

Each flower has its own characteristics which contribute to the effectiveness of the Five Flower remedy.

Cherry Plum:
The cherry plum grows to the size of a small tree, with pure white flowers which have a pink tinge. This flower helps in times of anxiety and with fears about loss of control over a situation. Cherry plum helps to bring peace and stillness within, to counteract the tension felt during stressful times.

Rock Rose:
This yellow flower grows on downland and is used to treat reactions of great fear and terror. Rock Rose helps to restore stability and peace, and brings light to the darkness of panic-filled situations.

Clematis:
The clematis flower will help to treat those who are dreamy, drowsy and not fully awake to the world and present circumstances. With white flowers growing on a spreading vine, the clematis will bring consciousness back into one's body and the present.

Impatiens:
These mauve flowers grow along streams and in shady areas. The flower trees those who find it difficult to be patient and hope to carry out their work quickly. Impatiens will help to balance those who are restless and irritable.

Star of Bethlehem:
This is used when someone is in great distress, for example after hearing serious news, losing a loved one or after an accident. The white six-pointed star helps to bring spiritual equilibrium and acceptance to those who are deeply disturbed by circumstances.

These flower essences form the most popular and well known combination remedy, 'Five Flower', prepared according to Dr Bach's original instructions for 'rescue' combination. The remedies are created by deepening flowers in a bowl of water in direct sunlight or boiling them prepare a 'mother tincture'. This is the concentrated essence of the flower, which is further diluted 1: 400 parts 40% organic French brandy to make the traditional Bach flower stock concentrate. This is used to make a combination with other remedies in a dispensing bottle or dropped into a glass of water for immediate consumption.

Working with the Bach flower remedies presents a challenge: Dr Bach's flowers hold a mirror to our emotional and psychological state. They help us to understand how we respond to change. We can find a way to work with problems and difficulties. Individuals and their emotional condition are central to the experience and process of healing.

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Source by Julia Aversano

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The Revolution of Pop Art

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Pop Art was an art movement that emerged in the mid 1950’s in Britain, and in the late 1950’s for the United States. The British artists were the product of the independent group (IG), formed in 1952. The members resisted the institute’s commitment to modernist art, design and architecture. It was the Americans however that really gave increased awareness and success in the Pop Art movement.

Pop Art used the visual commodities of popular culture within the movement of fine art. English Critic Lawrence Alloway used the term ‚pop‘ as art that made use of objects, materials and technologies from mass culture, to bring out the yields of the industrial society. It was characterized by themes and techniques drawn from popular mass culture; such as comic books, packaging, advertising, television and film.

Pop Art evolved at a crucial time in society, post World War II, which saw an enormous economic growth. This was the beginning of commercial manipulation, celebrities and exhibitionism. It wanted to bring art back to the people in their everyday lives, working with simple everyday objects.

Around 1962 Pop Art established itself as a serious recognized art form. It marked the end of modernism and the beginning of the postmodern era. It merged the divide between the fine arts with the media and advertising commercial arts; a divide that had been prominent for hundreds of years. Pop Art soon became one of the biggest movements of the 20th Century. It was beautiful, polished and glamorous, even though it was mass produced on a low budget; it caught the changes in society perfectly.

Andy Warhol was one of the biggest American Pop Artists around. It was Warhol’s paintings that made him so famous worldwide. His painting of Campbell’s soup tins which was used commercially has become extremely well known. As well as his screen-print of Marilyn Monroe which depicts Warhol’s own insight on American fame.

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Passing the Baton – The Speech Which Every Leader Has to Give But May Not Know How to Give It

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As sure as night follows day there comes a time in every leader’s life when he or she is at the receiving end, or at the passing-on end, of the ‚leadership baton‘.

That’s a time when many incoming chairpersons achieve their long-cherished ambition to be appointed chairperson of a club, a society, an institution or an association. It’s a time for you to feel proud of yourself. It’s a time when your spouse and family will be very proud of you and it’s certainly a time when your parents – if either or both of them are still alive – will feel exceptionally proud of you.

Most incoming chairpersons serve their time, so to speak, in an organisation before they are finally appointed to the chair. What usually happens is that you rise up through the ranks, from ordinary membership level to being a member of the board, or a head of a specific activity group. And then the great day comes when you are invited by the incumbent chairperson to be vice-chairperson. Once this happens it is usually only a matter of time before the baton is finally passed on to you. And for a fixed number of years you are the honourable chairperson – or leader of the association.

Some appointments of this nature can last a lifetime, or for as long as you wish to remain in the chair. But, no matter how long your appointment last, it is a huge honour. It is a time for celebrations. It is often a time for public press releases, or for special membership announcements etc. And yes! Depending on the position, it can also be a time of radio interviews or even TV appearances.

The spotlight is on you! But hey! Hold on! Wait a minute! The spotlight is also on someone else as well. Remember, it takes two to pass the baton. And in this case the second person is the outgoing chairman – the person who is handing over the job to you.

So, at the risk of boring you to death by repeating myself let me say here again that as sure as night follows day sometime in the future you too will be an outgoing chairman passing on the baton to your successor. So think in terms of, not one… but two speeches.

Two speeches! That’s what everyone who is involves in passing the leadership baton needs at some stage in their lives. They need an up-beat thank you speech when they have successfully secured the baton and they need an eloquent farewell speech when they are passing on the baton to their successor.

Of the two, the second speech is the easier one to give. Because 99 times out of a hundred all that is required of the outgoing chairperson is a short speech which says two things…

1. Thank you and

2. Best wishes to my successor.

Of course you could go on and tell everyone what an awesome chairperson you were and bore everyone to death by giving then a long list of all your wonderful achievements. But most people who are passing on the baton don’t boast about their achievements. But they do hope that the incoming chairperson will say nice things about them in his/her accepting the baton speech.

Your „accepting the baton speech“ is important to more people than just you and your family. It’s also hugely important for the outgoing chairperson and his/her family too. In fact, I would rank it as probably one of the most important speeches that you will give in your life. That’s why I always urge incoming chair-people and new leaders to spend time thinking about what they are going to say in their acceptance speech and to be super-prepared with a gracious and well thought out speech when the big moment arrives.

Remember, this is a speech when everyone wants to hear you saying good things about the outgoing chairman and – now mark the following words carefully – ‚they want to hear you saying it in such a way that everyone involved, fells good about you as well.‘

That’s what a memorable „passing the baton“ leadership speech is all about… it’s about 100% ‚goodness‘. 50% of the goodness goes to the outgoing chairperson in praise and thanks for all his/her wonderful achievements and the other 50% of the goodness goes directly to you in the form of ‚goodwill‘ for all the wonderful praise and nice things that you say about your predecessor.

One important way for you to accelerate this ‚goodwill‘ factor is for you to tell a good funny story. If possible, try and link your story to the outgoing chairperson so that everyone gets a good laugh and – most important – everyone thinks of you as a ‚good fun‘ person to know.

Here’s an example of how to do this link: Ladies and gentlemen, as most of you know, George, our outgoing Chairman, was always great company to be with. He has a wonderful sense of humour and over the years he has shared many a good joke or a hilariously funny story with us. Now I don’t know whether I heard this story from George or not. I suspect I did. But even so, I know that he will get great enjoyment from me sharing it with you here… (Go on to tell the joke – if possible name one of the people in the joke: George.)

Here it is a 10-point speech template which encapsulates the points mentioned above and which will to help you to write a successful ‚passing the baton‘ speech…

1…. Open by thanking everyone for being there…

2…. give background information on George’s long association with the organisation/company…

3…. give some highlights of George’s achievements as the chairman of the association/ company…

4…. and outline some of George’s successful attributes and skills as chairman

5…. mention some of George’s personal achievements.

6…. tell a joke (or a witty story about George) if you think that this will go down well.

7…. but remember to try and tie in all jokes to George, if you can.

8…. now, slow down, get technical, and talk about the huge skill, the vast amount of preparation and skilful technique that in the world of sports goes into successfully passing on the baton.

9…. and emphasise that ‚thanks to George‘ the baton has being passed on to you successfully.

10…. and finish up with a clever link between you talking about successfully passing and receiving the baton and you actually receiving in your hands from your secretary or a colleague, a farewell gift to present to George.

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Source by Robert Hayes-McCoy

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