Northern Rock Panic in the UK

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If you have heard any news from the UK in the past few days you would know that the savings bank Northern Rock has had people lining up to take their hard earned savings out of the bank and move them elsewhere. I was lucky enough at the weekend to talk to Ben Costella who is a financial consultant in the UK and understands exactly how all of this works.

Ben told me that a bank has to hold funds that are in the region of 10% of what their current lending is. This means that every time the bank lends out $100 they have to top up their reserves with $10. This is the way that banks work.

Banks have from the beginning of time been using this system, however due to there being a little bit of panic in the US market at the moment with over lending on mortgages and credit the banks have stopped lending money to each other. So now when Chase go to MBNA and ask them to top up their reserves the answer is no. This means that the banks have to borrow from the central funding that is available should they need it.

Central funding in the USA comes from the Federal Reserve and in the UK it is from the Bank of England. The reason that the Northern Rock currently have thousands of people lining up outside their branches all across the UK is because they asked the Bank of England for funding to top up their reserves. In the past this has been a sign of a bank being in financial difficulty and people have put their trust in the banks and lost a lot of money.

So now it has happened again people want to take their money from Northern Rock and place it somewhere safe, however there is a large amount of distrust in the UK when it comes to banks at the moment and the government are doing all they can to keep people calm but banks don’t get into financial difficulties unless there is something wrong.

Looking at this from a different angle it is something that happens all the time all around the world banks in Spain and Italy also borrowed from central reserves in the past few weeks in order to keep their top up reserve in touch. The difference being in the UK the last time a bank was in a serious financial state was the demise of Bearings bank back in the 1980’s where the bank went bust due to what they claimed was a rogue trader rather than their borrowing but they were topping up from the Bank of England on a regular basis.

So with Northern Rock facing a lot of questions over the coming weeks there could be more problems to come for the worlds economy due to the borrowing habbits that banks allow us all to participate in fairly freely.

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Listen to Free Radio Stations

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Listen to free radio stations Why? I’ll tell you why in this article. First you may be wondering what free radio stations are. Free radio stations are basically radio stations which you do not have to pay for. Nowadays many stations are charging to use their service and plus you have services like ITunes or Yahoo Music which charge you to listen to their music. Free radio stations will also offer you a wide variety of music to choose from. Many of the paid services only list mainstream artists.

So why should you listen to free radio stations? I will list some of the reasons to listen to free radio stations. First off you should listen because it is free. You maybe wondering how they can afford to be free and still operate. Free Radio Stations charge businesses for advertising. The next reason you should Listen to free radio stationsis to help out the smaller artists. Most unknown artists will not get the listings in ITunes or Yahoo music. So they have to submit their records to smaller independent radio stations and hope the DJ will play their music. If their record gets picked it can be great exposure for the artist or band. With the larger radio stations like satellite radio (which you have to pay for) will not even look at these artists.

Listen to free radio stations it’s the way to go. It is a great way to find and listen to new artists who have not hit the mainstream market yet. It is also a great way to listen to a variety of music and lots of different bands. Lastly why should you be charged to listen to music on a radio station, that does not make any sense. So listen to free radio stations and you will see what I mean.

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Common Household Signs That Your Child May Be On Drugs

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Do you ever find your ballpoint pens missing? What happened to those large plastic pop bottles that you thought you threw into the recycling bin? Why are so many spoons missing from your cutlery drawer in the kitchen?

Have any of your kitchen or bathroom faucets lost their filters? What about your window screens? Do they have any missing chunks? Do you ever walk into the bathroom and become overwhelmed by the scent of heavily-sprayed perfume?

Kids are amazingly resourceful when it comes to creating methods of ingesting drugs. They don’t need to go to a „head shop“ to find these tools. Everything they need can be found in the home. As parents, you really need to be aware of these signs.

Have you ever gone to the fridge to find an entire cake gutted from the inside? Have you ever found incredible amounts of junk food missing from your pantry?

Has money ever gone missing from your wallet or purse? Do your other children ever complain that stuff is missing from their rooms? Do you ever walk around your home and notice certain things that just make you go, „Huh?“

Chances are that you are NOT losing your mind. If you have any concern that your child may be abusing drugs, please pay attention to these very common household signs.

Everyday household stuff can easily be used for making drug paraphernalia. More expensive items like bicycles, musical instruments and iPods can be sold or hawked to pay their dealers.

What is my son or daughter using the pens, pop bottles and mesh filters for?

Kids frequently use these items to make bongs. Bongs are pipes used as a method to inhale marijuana and/or hashish through a water filter. Some kids think this is a purer way to filter out the harmful carcinogens that marijuana and hashish contain. Some of them consider this to be a healthier „high.“

There are hundreds of thousands of places via a Google search on the internet where they can learn how to build these homemade pipes.

As a substitute for pop bottles, they will use the glass from hurricane lamps, large jars, soda cans and just about anything else that can provide a „chamber.“

What happened to all of my spoons and candles?

Spoons and candles can be used in a variety of different ways to ingest drugs. Sometimes, hashish oil is heated in an everyday teaspoon over a lit candle and inhaled (through the hollow tube of a pen.) Spoons are also used for mixing and injecting stronger drugs like methamphetamine (meth, ice), but sadly, by the time your child reaches that stage, you will likely be aware of it already.

I could have sworn I had a pair of diamond earrings in my jewellery box.

Nothing in your house is sacred when you have a child heavily influenced by drugs. Yes, they will steal from their own mother. Check your valuables every once in a while. If stuff starts to disappear, start asking questions.

What happened to that cake I had in the fridge? It looks like a pack of animals got at it.

No, that wasn’t a pack of animals. It was likely your son or daughter coming down from a high, desperately needing a fix of sugar. They didn’t use a fork. They used their hands. They also prepared and consumed three packages of Kraft macaroni and cheese all at once.

I left my purse on the kitchen counter and now $50 is missing.

You’re not imagining this. Even in your own household, you are vulnerable to theft from the child who is addicted to drugs. Your other children are also extremely vulnerable. They may not want to tell you, but they may suspect their brother or sister is stealing from them.

Often, there are no obvious red flags to alert us that our children have already started down the path to drug hell. As parents, we have to look at the subtleties.

Look around you. Look around your house. If something doesn’t seem right, it probably isn’t. Keep track of your stuff. Don’t listen to the „dog ate my homework“ story.

For the sake of your beloved child and yourself, don’t ignore these common household signs of possible drug abuse. Your child may already be feeling out of control.

Use these early opportunities to take a stand. If you really don’t feel right about something that’s going on right under your roof, trust your gut instinct and address it now.

Your son’s or daughter’s life may depend on it.

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Unpopped Popcorn – How it occurs

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Most everyone enjoys having the treat of popcorn from time to time. Of course, regardless of how you pop it, there always looks to be a little bit of unpopped popcorn left. You may be wondering why there’s always just a little of unpopped popcorn left behind.

Before you can understand why unpopped popcorn frequently occurs, you have to know how popcorn actually pops in the 1st place. In every kernel, you’ll find that there is a bit of oil and some moisture. When the kernels are heated, the moisture that’s on the inside gets extremely hot.

Once the steam on the inside gets extremely hot, soon it starts to make the within of the kernel to become soft. As the heat continues on the unpopped popcorn, soon the hull essentially will rupture under the pressure. All of the starch on the inside turns into a soft foam, which is what we know as popcorn.

After you the popcorn pops, it quickly will cool off so you can eat it, which definitely is always a mouth watering treat. However, after you pop your popcorn, you just about always find some unpopped popcorn close to the bottom. So why precisely does this happen?

Well sometimes some of the kernels don’t get enough heat to them. This means that they will not build up enough pressure to actually pop. This results in some of the unpopped popcorn kernels that you find. Heating up the kernels too much is an issue too. This can make them pop too swiftly, and could cause those hard partly popped pieces to happen.

Another excuse that you sometimes will find some unpopped popcorn kernels is actually because some of the kernels have too a lot of the moisture inside of them. This may bring about a problem as well .

The best popcorn must have the perfect moisture amount on the inside and must be heated at the right temperature. Heating it too hot or not heating it enough could cause an issue and often you may end up with a little bit of unpopped popcorn on the bottom.

At this time you know what actually causes that unpopped popcorn to happen. Whether you microwave your popcorn, do it in an air popper, or warmth it up in oil, this will happen from time to time. But, if you do end up with unpopped popcorn, do not be disturbed. You aren’t doing anything wrong. This is actually normal and occurs whatever which way you try and pop up your yummy snack.

Before you
buy unpopped popcorn online
Make efforts to check John Waterswonderful articles at his.

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Funko POP Marvel: Deadpool Bobble Head Vinyl Figure

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Funko is a pop culture licensed-focused toy company located in Everett, WA. Funko currently holds more than 150 licenses including, but not limited to; Lucas Films, Marvel, Hasbro, The Walking Dead, Game of Thrones, DC Comics, NBA, Sanrio, and Disney. Funko’s Pop! Vinyl is the number one stylized vinyl collectible in the world with over 10 million units sold in the last three years.Action Figur
Vinyl/Bobblehead Figur

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Electric Radio Controlled Boats – Basically How They Work

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Electric radio controlled boats come in various sizes and are controlled by a radio system which includes a transmitter and a receiver which is installed in the boat. The transmitter is usually a stick type or a gun type that you hold and control with your fingers. The receiver that is mounted inside the RC Boat receives and processes the signals from the hand held transmitter and sends them to the servos which tell the motor to rotate, accelerate, slow down and turn left or right.

The servos (motors) are typically powered by NiCd (nickel-cadmium batteries) or NiMH (nickel-metal hydride batteries) and operate from 4.8 volts to 6 volts DC from a 4 or 5 cell battery. Run times vary from 5-10 minutes at 20-25 MPH to 1 or 2 hours depending on how many motors and battery packs your are running. Many boats have enough space to accommodate 2 batteries.

Electric radio controlled boats are very quiet compared to the gas or nitro models but do not have the same top end speed. Before buying one you should check with your local bylaws to see where you can run your boat. Most of the electric RC boats can be run in most areas because they are quiet and don not disrupt other people in the area.

For some reason many people have the impression that it's hard to build a radio controlled boat and get started in the hobby. If this tends to turn you off because you are not particularly mechanically inclined then buy an RTR or (ready to run) boat. These are boats that you can buy that are ready to go right out of the box. It does not get much easier than that. For those that do not like to tinker around and frankly do not have the time to then an RTR boat is probably a great choice for them.

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Family Radio Service

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Technical information

FRS radios are limited to 500 milliwatts according to FCC regulations. Channels 1 to 7 are shared with low-power interstitial channels of GMRS, the General Mobile Radio Service. A license is required for those channels if the power output is over FRS limits.

Unlike Citizens‘ Band (CB) radios, FRS radios frequently have provisions for using sub-audible tone squelch (CTCSS and DCS) codes, filtering out unwanted chatter from other users on the same frequency. Although these codes are sometimes called „privacy codes“ or „private line codes“ (PL codes), they offer no protection from eavesdropping and are only intended to help share busy channels. Tone codes also do nothing to prevent desired transmissions from being swamped by stronger signals having a different code.

FRS stations on channels 1 through 7 may communicate with GMRS stations on those shared channels; the GMRS stations may use up to 5 watts of power, while the FRS stations are restricted to 0.5 watts.

The use of duplex radio repeaters and interconnects to the telephone network are prohibited under FRS rules, unlike GMRS which allows repeaters, and unlike the Amateur Radio Service. FRS radios must use only permanently-attached antennas. This limitation intentionally restricts the range of communications, allowing greatest use of the available channels.

FRS manufacturers generally claim exaggerated range. The presence of large buildings, trees, etc., will reduce range. Under exceptional conditions, (such as hill-top to hill-top) communication is possible over 60 km (40 miles) or more, but that is rare. Normal conditions, with line-of-sight blocked by a few buildings or trees, mean FRS has an actual range of 0.5 to 1.5 km (1/3 to 1 mile).

FRS/GMRS hybrid radios in the United States

Motorola FV150 FRS and GMRS handheld radio

Hybrid FRS/GMRS consumer radios have been introduced that have 22 channels. Many of these radios have been certified for unlicensed operation (on the 14 FRS frequencies, channels 1-14) under FRS rules.

The FCC rules and statements regarding the use of hybrid radios on channels 1-7 stipulate the need for a GMRS license when operating under the rules that apply to the GMRS. Many hybrid radios have an ERP that is lower than 0.5 watts on channels 1-7, or can be set by the user to operate at low power on these channels. This allows hybrid radios to be used under the license-free FRS rules if the ERP is less than 0.5 watts and the unit is certified for FRS operation on these frequencies.

Owners of hybrid radios should be aware that in the United States of America it is illegal to operate on channels 15-22 without an FCC GMRS license. Most radio manufacturers do not make this sufficiently clear to customers. Consequently, this can cause unlawful interference to GMRS licensees. As GMRS licenses cost money to obtain, such interference is a source of frustration for duly-licensed operators.

Channels 8-14 are exclusively for FRS. Accordingly, GMRS operation is not allowed on these channels. Channels 15-22 are reserved exclusively for GMRS. As noted, FRS operation is not allowed on these channels.

List of FRS channels


Frequency (MHz)




Shared with GMRS.



Shared with GMRS.



Shared with GMRS.



Shared with GMRS.



Shared with GMRS.



Shared with GMRS.



Shared with GMRS.



FRS use only



FRS use only



FRS use only



FRS use only



FRS use only



FRS use only



FRS use only

Some clubs have recommended FRS Channel 1 as a national emergency/calling channel, such as REACT International, Inc. and the National SOS Radio Network.

Channel 2 is typically used by geocaching groups when trying to connect with other geocachers.

Similar services in other regions

Personal UHF radio services similar to the American FRS exist in other countries, although since technical standards and frequency bands will differ, usually FCC-approved FRS equipment may not be used in other jurisdictions.


Some manufacturers in Taiwan have radios that carry both FRS and GMRS frequencies, using channels 1 to 99. Channels 1 to 14 are well-known, while channels 15 to 99 are less popular.

channels 15 462.9125, ch16 462.9375, ch17 462.9625, ch18 462.9875, ch19 463.0125, ch20 463.0375, ch21 …..

… ch98 464.9875, ch99 465.0125.


American-standard FRS radios have been approved for use in Canada since April 2000. The revised technical standard RSS 210 has essentially the same technical requirements as in the United States. Since September 2004,low-power GMRS radios and dual-standard FRS/GMRS radios have also been approved for use in Canada, giving additional channels. In Canada, no license is required and no restrictions are imposed on the GMRS channels.


Since tourists often bring their FRS radios with them, and since trade between the U.S., Canada, and Mexico is of great value to all three countries, the Mexican Secretary of Communication and Transportation has authorized use of the FRS frequencies and equipment similar to that in the US. However, dual-mode FRS/GMRS equipment is not approved in Mexico, so caution should be exercised in operating hybrid FRS/GMRS devices purchased elsewhere.


In Europe, a personal radio service with the same sort of licensing restriction is PMR446 having eight channels in the 446 MHz range. One cannot legally use the FRS radio in Europe or PMR446 in the U.S. The 446 MHz band is allocated to amateur radio in the United States, so in principle a licensed amateur operator could use non-FCC-type-accepted PMR446 radios in the U.S. in compliance with the rules for amateur radio operation. In Great Britain, FRS frequencies are used for fire brigade communications and this sometimes causes problems when FRS equipment is imported from the U.S. and used without awareness of the consequences by members of the public. Sweden and Norway have a Kort Distanse Radio service with six UHF channels between 444.600 and 444.975 MHZ. European countries also have Low-power communication devices operating in the 433 MHZ band, and short-range devcies (SRD) operating on frequencies between 868 and 870 MHZ. These devices are restricted to 10 mW output power and are intended to provide an altenative to PMR 446 over short distances.

South America

Dual-mode GMRS/FRS equipment is also approved in Brazil and most South American countries. Portable radios are heavily used in private communications, mainly by security staff in nightclubs and malls, but also in private parking, maintenance, and delivery services.


A service similar to the American-style FRS in Hong Kong, Macau, and China is also approved by respective organizations for legal license-free operation, with the name of „Public Radio Service“. However, different UHF frequencies with 20 allocated channels near 409 MHz are used. 462 MHz and 446 MHz band are not opened to FRS service, so European, American, and Canadian residents are advised not to use FRS or PMR446 radios for communication when traveling to the aforementioned areas.

List of China Public Radio Service Channels:


Frequency (MHz)










































In Japan, a similar service is limited to 10 millwatts in the 420, 421, and 422 MHz bands. It is called „Tokutei Shoudenryoku Musen“ („SLPR:Specified Low Power Radio“).

Australia and New Zealand

In Australia and New Zealand, the UHF CB citizen’s band near 477 MHz is used for a similar purpose. The Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA) also allocated a band near 434 MHz for low-powered devices with low potential for interference to other users of the band.

South Africa

South Africa is in the process to conforming to ITC region 1 recommendations, they do allow 8 channels of FRS radios 446.0-446.1 MHz band currently, this is the same as the European PMR446.


The Philippines has a radio service for use of families and small businesses. This service is called SRRS or Short Range Radio Service. Units are limited to simplex operations and have a power limitation of 2.5 watts.

This service has been allocated 40 channels in 325 MHZ spectrum:

Channel Frequency

Channel Frequency

Channel Frequency

Channel Frequency

1 325.0000

11 325.1250

21 325.2500

31 325.3750

2 325.0125

12 325.1375

22 325.2625

32 325.3875

3 325.0250

13 325.1500

23 325.2750

33 325.4000

4 325.0375

14 325.1625

24 325.2875

34 325.4125

5 325.0500

15 325.1750

25 325.3000

35 325.4250

6 325.0625

16 325.1875

26 325.3125

36 325.4375

7 325.0750

17 325.2000

27 325.3250

37 325.4500

8 325.0875

18 325.2125

28 325.3375

38 325.4625

9 325.1000

19 325.2250

29 325.3500

39 325.4750

10 325.1125

20 325.2375

30 325.3625

40 325.4875


Thailand has an 80 channel CB-style service using FM in the band 245.000-245.9875 MHZ. Units are allowed up to 5 watts RF power. Besides personal use, the equipment is used by search and rescue and businesses. Operating rules are less restrictive than amateur radio service, with an initial license fee required. The hand-held units usually have a red case. There are an estimated one million users of the service, often in large cities.


Since 3 February 2004, the Infocomm Development Authority of Singapore (IDA) has allocated the 446.0-446.1 MHz frequency band for low-powered walkie-talkies on a non-interference, non-protected and shared-use basis. As these walkie-talkies are low-powered devices which do not potentially cause interference to other licensed radio services, it need not be licensed for use in Singapore. However, the device must be type approved by IDA for local sale.

See also

General Mobile Radio Service

Multi-Use Radio Service



^ FCC: Wireless Services: Family Radio Service : Family Home

^ „Frequently Asked Questions“. Groundspeak Inc.. Retrieved 2009-07-29. 

^ Industry Canada RSS-210 – Low-power Licence-exempt Radiocommunication Devices (All Frequency Bands) retrieved 2009 Oct 23

^ Mexico’s Family Radio Service (FRS) equivalent retrieved 2009 Oct 23

^ ACMA spectrum for 434 MHz LIPD devices


^ Thailand amateur radio emergency services , retrieved 2009 10 24

^ Wider Choice of Radio-Communication & Wireless Devices for Consumers and Total Annual Savings of $200,000 for Telecom Equipment Dealers: and Events/20050712103130.aspx?getPagetype=20

External links

CTCSS Codes for some Radios

FRS Radios in Mexico

Industry Canada discussion on the approval of FRS in Canada

Personal Radio Association

FRS and GMRS radio information and forums

F-R-S Communications Center

The situation of License Free Radio System in Japan

REACT International, Inc.

National SOS Radio Network

List of worldwide hand-held radio services retrieved 2009 10 24

v  d  e

Two-way radio

Amateur and hobbyist

Amateur radio  Amateur radio repeater  Citizens‘ band radio  Family Radio Service  General Mobile Radio Service  Mobile rig  Multi-Use Radio Service  PMR446  LPD433  UHF CB (Australia)

Aviation (aeronautical mobile)

Air traffic control  Aircraft emergency frequency  Airband  Mandatory frequency airport  Single Frequency Approach  UNICOM

Land-based commercial and government mobile

Business band  Base station  Mobile radio  Professional Mobile Radio  Radio repeater  Specialized Mobile Radio  Trunked radio system  Walkie talkie

Marine (shipboard)

2182 kHz  500 kHz  Coast radio station  Marine VHF radio  Maritime mobile amateur radio

Signaling / Selective calling

CTCSS  Dual-tone multi-frequency  D-STAR  MDC-1200  Push to talk  Quik Call I  Quik Call II  Selcall

System elements and principles

Antenna  Audio level compression  Automatic vehicle location  APRS  Call sign  CAD  DC remote  Dispatch  Fade margin  Link budget  Rayleigh fading  Tone remote  Voice procedure  Voting (diversity combining)

Categories: Bandplans | Radio hobbies | Radio technology

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