Cosmetic Beauty: Top Celebrity Beauty Secrets

Have you ever wondered what a celebrity like Madonna or even Cameron Diaz would look like without their make up? Many women who adore and idolize celebrities are often fascinated on how celebrity makeup and hairstyles are made to look so perfect. The secret behind these glamorous faces very much lies in how their „celebrity makeup‘ is applied. Getting the same make up results should not cost you the earth. You can learn the secrets of these celebrities by doing a little bit of research on the types of celebrity make up they use. Choosing affordable cosmetics that will give you the right look is one of the most known secrets behind these beautiful faces. Here are some of the hottest celebrity make up tips that you too can easily do on your own.

Choose the right color of cosmetics. Cosmetics include lipsticks, blush-on, eye shadows, mascara and face foundation. You will never go wrong in mixing and matching colors and textures when you choose colors that match your skin tone. Also, when buying cosmetics or celebrity makeup, make sure to do a skin test first. Your skin may react to the different chemical contents of cosmetics, so be sure to check the composition of your face foundation or powder make up. Most celebrity makeup artists use mineral based foundation because it brings glow as well as containing healthy minerals that are perfect for sensitive skin. You may also experiment by mixing and matching make up colors to suit your mood, personality and even the weather. And last but not least, use a facial moisturizer before going to bed to ensure that your skin does not get irritated and prevents early skin aging.

There are a lot of possibilities especially in choosing the right kind of makeup. Having that glamorous look should not require a lot of money. Try researching cheap make up online and browse through prices, contents and reviews by previous buyers and patrons. Celebrity make up secrets often simply a matter of including proper care for your face and choosing the right cosmetics. Celebrity makeup is not extra ordinary process; all it takes is a little bit of research and creativity.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Source by Sean O’Donoghue

A Brief History of Rock and Pop Music

You may be wondering when exactly did rock/pop music begin? There’s no clear answer to this. Some might say that it started with the advent of rock n roll with Bill Haley and the Comets in 1952. Others would say Elvis, although not the first but surely the original truly global superstar. Yet none of these were really the first. Rock n roll has its roots in blues which has its roots back to the 19th century with black immigrants trying to escape from their slave driven lives. Fast forward to the early 20th. century and some of the earliest recordings on 78 began to appear. Players from this time such as Bobby Jo and Robert Johnson helped to form the structure of early blues

Robert Johnson had recorded only thirty songs during his short life as he was prevented from achieving true fame while alive by being poisoned by a jealous husband. He died shortly before he was being sought to appear at the ‚Spirituals To Swing‘ concert in 1938 by record producer John Hammond. As a result, his reputation only took off after Hammond released an album of his recordings for Columbia in the early sixties. Later blues exponents like Muddy Waters and Eric Clapton admitted borrowing heavily from these early stalwarts.

In the 50’s, artists took the basic blues style and used electric guitars, drums and double bass for the first time creating early rock n roll, later known as rockabilly. Stalwarts like Chuck Berry, Buddy Hollie and Jerry Lee Lewis were the most famous protagonists here. Later Elvis in the US and to a lesser extent, Cliff Richard (later leading the Shadows) in the UK brought rock n roll to a truly worldwide audience. This paved the way for the 60’s beat era which could be considered the true beginning of pop music as we know it today, certainly as far as bands were concerned.

In the 50’s and early 60’s, it was mostly lead solo artists with just a backing band. With the advent of the beat era, bands dominated with The Beatles, The Rolling Stones and the Beach Boys from the US taking the world by storm. Even so, The Beatles later admitted being heavily influenced by those earlier rock n roll and blues artists. They mostly played rock n roll and blues covers at their pre-fame Hamburg concerts. in the early 60’s. The Beatles however, were the first band to successfully blend classical music textures with rock n roll to form perfectly crafted pop songs. While bands like The Rolling Stones continued with the mainly rock n roll theme,

The Beatles took their finely crafted style further in the seminal album ‚Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band‘ in 1967 by utilizing new studio techniques and instruments never used before. They used a new instrument called ‚the Melotron‘ This was basically a keyboard which played looped tape recordings. of real instruments. The most famous sound from this was probably the flute used on the ‚Strawberry Fields‘ single recorded at the same time but later dropped from the album. The Melotron though, was cumbersome and unreliable and had a rather grainy sound. Even so It was regarded as the forerunner of the electronic sampler, invented nearly 20 years later. Infinitely more flexible than the Melotron, the sampler helped build the framework for modern pop,dance and R&B music.

The Beatles ‚Sgt.. Pepper‘ album with its groundbreaking recording techniques was preceded the year before by their ‚Revolver‘ album. These LP’s helped popularize a new wave in music known as psychedelic or acid rock, named after the mind bending effects of LSD drugs. Pink Floyd also recorded their debut album ‚Piper at the Gates of Dawn‘ in the studio next door at the same time that The Beatles recorded Sgt. Pepper. It was reported that Pink Floyd were a direct influence to The Beatles as a result. This new style incorporated new guitar effects like Fuzz, flanger anger and delays. These were used along side the earliest portable synthesizers such as the therein and mini Moog. invented by Bob Moog.

In America, the Beach boys responded with the ‚Pet sounds‘ LP in 1966 and later that year released the first big psychedelic hit ‚Good Vibrations‘. About this time, the band ‚Jefferson Airplane‘ recorded their debut album which was also the first LP to come out of the new San Franciscan music scene. This got the record industry’s attention and they had two of the earliest psychedelic hits ‚White Rabbit‘ and ‚Somebody to Love‘ in 1967.

Meanwhile in Los Angeles, Jim Morrison joined with members of The Psychedelic Rangers and Rick and the Ravens to form ‚The Doors‘ They were initially turned down by Columbia but were signed to Electra Records and released their self titled debut LP in 1967. The album included the 7 minute long hit single ‚Light my Fire‘ one of the first to break the typical three minute pop and rock song barrier.

Back in Britain, radio broadcasting was very limited because the BBC were the only organization allowed to broadcast on the mainland and had just two pop music shows The Saturday club and Easy Beat Radio Luxembourg partially filled the gap but it was left to pirate radio, broadcast from ships out at sea with DJ John Peel‘ which enabled the new style to reach a mass audience, often eclipsing the BBC in popularity. The BBC responded in the end with the advent of Radio 1 in June 1967. With the existing labor government making pirate radio illegal in Britain several months later, Du’s like John Peel rather than risk arrest joined radio 1 which had a much more informal and relaxed style as opposed to the staid and conservative approach favored by the BBC until then. This perfectly suited psychedelic pop and rock and John Peel championed this in his late night shows. playing new genres of music and introducing new and unsigned bands in the Peel sessions. He did this for nearly four decades until his death in 2004.

By the end of the 60’s after the break up of the beatles, mainstream music was about to change direction yet again both in style and fashion.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Source by Tony Dunn

Hot to Get Rid of Pop-Ups Once and For All!

How many times does it seem we are browsing on the internet and click on a website or article and boom another pop-up window comes up? Then we have click out of it until perhaps another one appears. What can we do to stop this mess once and for all?

Pop-ups are programmed using a very simple programming language called JavaScript. I didn’t know what this was until I was having problems. JavaScript is specifically designed for use in websites and can be used in conjunction with HTML. So JavaScript can be very annoying most of the time. The most annoying type of pop-ups are the ones that open more pop-ups as you close each one. You can end up with literally hundreds of pop-ups and will at the least need to shut down the original browser window, if not the whole computer.

Not only are pop-ups annoying, pop-up blockers are freely available in most web browsers. When is the last time you read a pop-up or pop-under ad? When one squeaks by my pop-up blocker I immediately close it without a second thought.

One thing that we should look to avoid is the system error and spyware infection ads. These ads will confuse many visitors and make them go away. These ads pop-up in your face with a message like „your computer is infected with spyware – click here for a free scan“. These ads don’t know anything about the user’s computer; they are just trying to trick them into purchasing an inferior product. There are also „innocent“ pop-ups with the sole intention of getting you to a website to sell a product.

However, what you need to be aware of is that these can be of a malicious variety. These install adware onto your computer without your knowledge or consent. Now how annoying can that be? This can cause your computer to „freeze“ and sometimes you may not have a choice and just reboot your computer at that time.

Buying a pop-up blocker can be a very effective way to stop both the annoyance the danger. There are free versions out there on the internet, but it is advised to go with a trusted paid service. They will have more updated software to ensure your continued safety.

Paid software can help get rid of the pop-ups that come up just when you’re connected to the internet. If you have not be infected yet with the pop-up blocker you may have Firefox for your internet and you can download a pop-up blocker right from their site. Please look into getting rid of any pop up’s that you may have immediately. Plus we don’t need anymore added stress to our lives! Good Luck!!!

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Source by Daniel Kolic

3 Tips For Better Haunted House Radio Commercials

You put your heart and soul into your haunted house attraction this year. You’ve spent day and night toying with each scene and scare, now you just need people to show up and experience your labor of love. How do you get them there? An effective haunted house radio commercial is a good place to start.

What goes into a good haunted house radio commercial though? Where do you start? Here are three tips to make your message stand out and hopefully draw larger crowds than ever before.

  1. Tell a story. Make sure that your commercial is not just a laundry list of directions and the types of scenes you’ve put together. Think movie trailer here. Truly good trailers suck you in, tell a story and make you walk away thinking „I have to see that!“. The same should be true about your haunted house radio commercial.
  2. Make an offer that they can’t refuse. Want to make your haunt the clear choice over all the other choices? Then be ready to make an offer like „buy one get one free admission“, „take $10 off speed pass admission when you use code radio“, or something of that nature. Sell some extra snacks on site or add premiums like „speed pass lines“ and you will make it up in no time. Plus the sheer amount of people who choose you over the others because of your crazy good offer, will likely work wonders at increasing attendance. But make the offer good. Do not skimp. That means „Take $2 off or 15% off“ will not cut it. It makes you sound cheap and will be a turn off. Go big on the offer, or don’t make any offer at all. Period.
  3. Create multiple versions of your haunted house radio commercial. Versions that run the day of the haunt that say „Tonight“ or „this weekend“. People respond to urgency. If it sound like all the fun is going on „tonight“ vs. the „every Friday, Saturday and Sunday“ version, they will be more likely to visit your haunt that night.

Most important is getting your message created and recorded by professionals. Don’t skimp on this one. Having the local dj’s do their „spooky“ voice, will pale in comparison to the sound of a professional haunted house radio commercial company will deliver.

The message your customers hear on the radio is the calling card to your haunt, if its good you can expect long lines and happy customers. If it sounds lame, you and your crew will be in for a long, slow night.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Source by Tony Brueski

The Stars Shine Down by Sidney Sheldon: A Book Review

I got tired of mouse clicks and clicking pages on my laptop. Instead, I badly wanted a feel for solid pages in my hands. That’s when I thought I would take a break and enjoy reading a novel, flipping through its pages for real by my favorite author, Sidney Sheldon.

I went to the nearest bookstore and felt compelled to buy three novels by him and hoped to enjoy weeks reading them which is exactly what I did. One of these books was, „The Stars Shine Down“. I do want to provide a review of this well-structured, well-plotted and well-crafted novel. Read on for the review.

The novel describes a 17-year old girl, Lara who has a hate relationship with her Dad because no matter how much she wants to impress and love him, he always passes on stinging remarks about her. After her Dad passes away, she dreams of erecting a building in a nearby spot from where she currently lived in a boarding house. Eventually she materialized her dream and that was how she got into real estate business.

She also aged and became a beautiful lady and everyone was mesmerized at the first glance. Yet she was America’s princess travelling London to New York, from Rino to Rome constructing buildings, hotels and shopping centers. She was successful and became a self-made billionaire. Of course, she had help all along. She also came across her soul mate while travelling, who happened to be a pianist. They fell in love and married each other. Yet they were from different backgrounds, one erecting high rise and the other engrossed in music.

When all her valuable assets seemed to be crashing down and she almost broke off with her husband, a surprise birthday party from her husband, friends and colleagues made it all a happy ending for her.

This is a fabulous book to encounter. I would recommend it to anybody who is interested in reading novels.

Some of Sidney Sheldon’s blockbuster novels are „The Sky is Falling, „Tell me Your Dreams“, „The Best Laid Plans“, „Morning, Noon & Night“, „Nothing Lasts Forever“ and a countless other ones. Almost all have been number-one international bestsellers. His first book, „The Naked Face“ was acclaimed by the New York Times as, „the best first mystery of the year“ and received an Edgar Award. Most of his novels have become major feature films or TV miniseries and there are more than 300 million copies of his books in print throughout the world. Undoubtedly, Sidney Sheldon reigns as one of the most popular storytellers of all time.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Source by Rosina S Khan

In Touch Weekly Magazine – One of the Front Runners in Celebrity News Coverage

In Touch Weekly was started back in 2002 as a source for consumers wanting an inexpensive way to catch up on celebrity news.  With so many people looking for a factual source of information that is not written in a tabloid style, this magazine is the perfect choice.

It has become a popular choice amongst many people in the younger crowd due to its inexpensive cover price that is much lower than People or US Weekly that offers the same type of information.

One of the most remarkable features throughout the In Touch Weekly publication is the use of some of the best photographs found in any magazine.  The photos are mostly candid, but are very high quality.  

Along with these exceptional photographs of current celebrities, the most liked attribute to this magazine is the fact that there are very few advertisements.  It is found that with just about every issue, there are ten pages or less with ads and many of them are not full page size.

Every issue in the In Touch subscription include the main topics of Celebrities, News, Lifestyle, Style, and the cover stories.  The celebrities section is the largest part of the magazine as this is where the news about the stars are discussed on just about every page.  Within these sections the reader can catch up on their favorite television and movie stars in the news, the latest on their home life, the best clothes that the celebrities have worn, and some excellent in-depth cover stories that are factual and to the point.

Other features found within the pages of the magazine allow the reader to have a little more fun with „The Stars Above“ for the weekly horoscopes, „Time to Relax“ for a weekly crossword puzzle, „Best of The Week“ for a summary of current television programs and new movies, and “ Last Words“ for some interesting quotes that were spoken by the celebrities. Many subscribers find that they continue to purchase an In Touch subscription so that they can keep up with the latest celebrity gossip and have a little extra fun at the end of the week.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Source by Kostantinos J. Papahatzis

Five Critical Rock Guitar Chords for Songs

When you begin playing rock music, learning guitar chords for songs is a fundamental building block.

Mastering basic chords sets you up to jam with others and play some killer rhythm guitar. Without some solid rhythm guitar backing a singer and lead guitar, rock songs just don’t deliver the kind of punch we’ve come to expect. Nothing beats hard-driving, distorted guitar!

There are a handful of chords that are the staple of rock music. You can hear them used in every rock genre, so it’s a great place to start getting your feet wet when learning to play rock guitar.

Probably the most critical major guitar chords to learn are the following: A, C, D, E, and G.

Interestingly, in their open chord forms, each of these has a different finger pattern to learn. What I mean by ‚open‘ is you will play the chord along with strings you aren’t pressing (or fretting) with your fingers. You’re typically playing these chords within the first three frets of the neck.

Once you have these five finger patterns memorized, you can literally play chords for songs all over the neck.

Fortunately, these chords are not difficult to play, and with a little practice, you’ll be rockin‘ in no time. In fact, with as little as two chords, you can be playing actual rock songs. For example, three songs based on only two guitar chords are „Paperback Writer“ by The Beatles (chords G and C), „Whole Lotta Love“ by Led Zeppelin (D and E) and „Something In The Way“ by Nirvana (E minor and C).

Learn these five critical chords and you’ll be jammin‘ in no time!

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Source by Dave Eddie Vance

Time to Pop the Question – Engage With Consumers Maturing UBI Into a Mass Market Proposition

Usage-Based Insurance or UBI is at the embryonic stage and has a long way to go before turning into the norm of insurance. With that being said, there is no denial that UBI will become the future of auto insurance. While it has already started laying the foundation, the question still remains: How is UBI going to appeal to consumers? How is it going propel into a mass market proposition?

Usage-Based Insurance, as the name suggests, has two popular auto insurance models – pay as you drive and pay how you drive. The pay-how-you-drive model uses advanced telematics technology, where driving data as detailed as a hard brake or rapid acceleration can alter insurance premiums. Such detail-oriented system can change not just insurance but reform driving completely. Focusing on the USPs of Usage-Based Insurance can most definitely attract the auto insurance market.

Pay How You Drive

Initially, driving information was captured for the purpose of investigating accidents or insurance claims. However, the need arose to take this technology a step further leading to the initiation of pay how you drive. The implementation of this model requires capturing driving data in real-time – calculating every rapid acceleration and hard brake, average speeds, frequency of driving, usage information like locations, parking, etc. and combining them with historical data to draft an insurance plan and allocate premium values.


Any initiative that can save money will appeal to the mass market. With an economy that is as rough as sailing through the Bermuda Triangle, consumers are constantly looking for avenues to that can cut costs. Usage-based model of insurance combines telematics, analytics and shared data to calculate an insurance policy that does not burn the pocket. Insurance premiums are decided based on this data. For instance, if the policyholder does not use his vehicle much and is a very careful driver, his insurance premium will be relatively less.

Even insurance agencies benefit from this model. In the event of a car crash, for example, telematics can capture real-time driving data and determine how the accident exactly took place and what damage was done avoiding fraudulent claims and reducing the risk of losses.

Incentive-based System and Customizable Features

A cautious driver pays far lesser than a reckless one. However, improvement in driving does not go unrewarded. Who does not love rewards and perks! UBI uses an incentive-based system to encourage better driving. If the insured improves his driving style, his premium amounts are bound to reduce.

Apart from that, insurance providers offer other customized features that differ from one insurer to another. These features can include driving tips, roadside assistance, Geo-fencing, location information like fuel stations, eateries, etc.

Conditioned to Drive Safely

B.F. Skinner had conducted an experiment to study the effects of rewards and incentives. He put a guinea pig in a box that has a lever fitted inside. Every time the guinea pig pressed the lever a food pellet would fall out. The number of times the guinea pig pressed the lever in a day increased gradually. This behavior modification through a reward system is called operant conditioning. Humans yield to rewards as well. This principle has been used in various fields of education, human resource management, marketing, etc. and generated good results.

UBI inculcates this principle in its incentive-based model to encourage people to drive safely. Not only does this model save money for both the insurer and the insured but also encourages better-quality driving – a win for all stakeholders.


There are a few concerns that need to be addressed. Privacy issues top the list, as people are concerned about divulging details of their whereabouts. The other concern is regulating the method of collecting data so that clients can transfer their data to another insurance provider and avail benefits without having to start from scratch.

UBI is still at the infancy stage, and thus these concerns will be addressed in the course of time. However, these challenges outweigh the benefits that UBI has to offer.

These are UBI’s competitive advantages that can drive UBI into a mass market proposition. It is essential to educate the masses on how UBI can transform the auto insurance into a system that is profitable for all parties and socially responsible. Insurers can use this tool not only for offering insurance solutions, but also for marketing purposes through consumer engagement features. The policyholders will pay as they drive which can result in better driving.

Usage-Based Insurance is a multifaceted system of reduced costs, customer engagement and inspiration for responsible driving. The ultimate outcome of UBI will be the contentment of insurance providers, their respective clients, and the society at large

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Source by Sud Gover

Introduction to Satellite Digital Audio Radio service(SDARS)

Satellite Digital Audio Radio Service (SDARS):

SDAR is a satellite-based direct-broadcast radio service in which

digitally encoded audio entertainment material is broadcast to

Earth-based receivers, either directly from an orbiting satellite, or from the satellite to

the receiver via a repeater station (This is a special case in which the receiver is in a

shielded location). SDARS is a radio communication service through which audio

programming is digitally transmitted by one or more space stations directly to

fixed, mobile, and/or portable stations, and which may involve complementary

repeating terrestrial transmitters, telemetry, tracking and control facilities.

Through SDARS compact-disc quality audio is available because of digital transmition

is employed.

History of Satellite Radio:

Satellite radio is an idea over a decade long. In 1992, the U.S.

Federal Communications Commission (FCC) allocated a spectrum in the

„S“ band (2.3 GHz) for nationwide broadcasting of satellite-based

Digital Audio Radio Service (DARS). Only four companies applied for a

license to broadcast over that band. The FCC gave licenses

to two of these companies in 1997. CD Radio (now Sirius Satellite Radio) and

American Mobile Radio (now XM Satellite Radio) paid more than $80 million each

to use space in the S-band for digital satellite transmission. The first satellite based radio launched by XM on Sep 25, 2001, then followed by Sirius on July 1, 2002.

At this time, there are three space-based radio broadcasters:

    Sirius Satellite Radio
    XM Satellite
    WorldSpace Satellite Radio

Importance and significance of Satellite radio:

We all have our favorite radio stations that we preset into our car

radios, flipping between them as we drive to and from work, on errands

and around town. But when you travel too far away from the source station, the

signal breaks up and fades into static. Most radio signals can only travel about 30

or 40 miles from their source. On long trips that find you passing through

different cities, you might have to change radio stations every hour or so as the signals fade in

and out. Now, imagine a radio station that can broadcast its signal from more than 22,000 miles (35,000 km) away and then come through on your car radio with complete clarity. One could drive

nearly hundreds of kilometers without ever having to change the radio station! Not

only would you never hear static interfering with your favorite tunes, but also the

music would be interrupted by few or no commercials.

Satellite radio companies are comparing

the significance of their service to the impact that cable TV had on

television 30 years ago. Listeners won’t be able to pick up local stations using

satellite radio services, but they will have access to hundreds of stations offering a

variety of music genres. Each company has a different plan for its broadcasting

system, but the systems do share similarities.

XM Satellite Radio, Sirius Satellite

Radio and WorldSpace satellite individually provides digital-audio

radio services (SDARS), with commercial-free programming, digital-audio quality, and

countrywide coverage. Each company offers nearly 100 channels of digital music and

talk radio (many of them commercial-free or with a reduced number of commercials)

that can be received from coast to coast with no service interruption. Each

offering number of music channels, these services clearly provides programming options

not available through traditional radio.

One of the main feature of SDARS is SDARS provides almost Commercial free (or Commercials are restricted) programs. And also it provides news, weather forecasts, and sports apart from

entertainment-based programs The primary application for this service is constant coast-to-coast coverage of radio for cars. We have all experienced the problem of trying to listen to radio on a long trip. Both AM and FM stations fade in and out as we drive into and out of their coverage

area. Portable full satellite radio service available now a days for

the car, home stereo and personal radio environments. Car manufacturers have been installing satellite radio receivers in some models for a few years now, and

several models of portable satellite radio receivers are available from a variety of

electronics companies.

Signal reception is generally poor as well as variable in the cases of AM or FM. With the SDARS systems, radio coverage throughout the 48 continental states is solid and continuous. Unlike

for AM and FM channels SDARS signals are available in a unique format

Subscription based radio service:

Because the technology requires access to a commercial satellite for

signal propagation; Satellite Radio services are commercial business

entities (not private parties), which offer a package of channels as part of their service

–requiring a subscription from end users to access its channels. Satellite

Radio Service can be subscribed at a monthly fee of $12.95 U.S. and up which

is very much worth full to the service that it gives.

Future of Satellite radio:

SDARS seems to get good market growth because of the following factors. Increasing

partnerships of XM and Sirius with Automobile OEM and distribution outlets made the

SDARS more popular. Introduction of more convenient hardware smaller and more

portable radios for the automobile as well as the home stereo,

computer and office and personal environments made possible at the

same time.

Home and personal use Industry promotional advertising and

awareness campaigns given the SDARS more popular. Sirius and XM now

also offer subscribers the option of listening to their programming

online. Apart from all of this,

price drop of hardware making it more affordable for after market purchase.

Author can be contacted through |24391d77a301d293af4d34b042a7d1d9| for more

information about SDARS.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Source by Jith Crs

The Strange Star That Was Born Like A Planet

A star is born within an especially dense blob tucked within the swirling, whirling folds of a giant, cold, dark and beautiful molecular Cloud. Such clouds float like phantoms through our Milky Way Galaxy in huge numbers, and they serve as the strange cradles of newborn stars. Although it may seem counterintuitive, things have to get very cold in order for a searing-hot, fiery baby star to be born. Young stars are circled by a surrounding disk of gas and dust termed a protoplanetary accretion disk, and these disks contain all of the necessary ingredients from which a system of planets can emerge. Protoplanetary accretion disks form at about the same time the baby star (protostar) does within its obscuring natal cloud. Most of the material contained in the accretion disk gathers at the center, and when this central material becomes massive enough, the process of nuclear fusion lights the newborn star’s stellar fires–for this is how a star is born. In December 2018, astronomers at the University of Leeds (UK) announced that they have captured one of the most detailed views of a young star obtained to date–and their observations revealed something surprising about the unexpected true identity of a companion object orbiting around it.

While carefully observing the young star, the astronomers, led by Dr. John Ilee from the University of Leeds, made the surprising discovery that it is not really one star–but two. The primary object of this duo, dubbed MM ia, is a massive baby star still encircled by its natal protoplanetary accretion disk. The disk was actually the original target of the astronomers‘ investigation.

A faint body, dubbed MM 1b, was detected just beyond the disk circling around MM 1a. The University of Leeds astronomers propose that this mysterious object is one of the first examples of a „fragmented“ disk to be spotted around a young massive star.

„Stars form within large clouds of gas and dust in interstellar space,“ noted Dr. Ilee in a December 14, 2018 Leeds University Press Release. „When these clouds collapse under gravity, they begin to rotate faster, forming a disk around them. In low mass stars like our Sun, it is in these disks that planets can form,“ he added. Dr. Ilee is of the School of Physics and Astronomy at Leeds.

„In this case, the star and disk we have observed is so massive that, rather than witnessing a planet forming in the disk, we are seeing another star being born,“ he continued to explain.

A Star Is Born

Stars are enormous fluffy balls of searing-hot, glaring, roiling gas. Regardless of their mass, all stars are primarily composed of hydrogen gas. Hydrogen is both the most abundant, as well as the lightest, atomic element in the Universe. In their hidden, hot, roiling hearts, stars transform their abundant supply of hydrogen into progressively heavier and heavier atomic elements. All of the atomic elements that are heavier than helium (the second-lightest atomic element in the Universe) are manufactured in the furnaces of stars–or, alternatively, in the brilliant blaze of a supernova blast that marks the explosive „death“ of a massive star. Indeed, the heaviest atomic elements of all–such as gold and uranium–are created in the violent explosion of a brilliant supernova.

The process of stellar nucleosynthesis is the term astronomers use to describe the way that natural abundances of the chemical elements contained within stars experience a strange sea-change. This sea-change is the result of nuclear fusion reactions that occur within stellar cores and their encircling mantles. Stars change as they grow older. These age-related stellar alterations depend on the abundances of atomic elements that stars hold within their seething-hot hearts. Fusion reactions occurring within a star’s core increase the atomic weight of its constituent elements. This causes a reduction of the number of particles. This process may result in the loss of radiation pressure–and the outward push of pressure is necessary to keep the star bouncy against the relentless inward pull of its own merciless gravity. When pressure can no longer battle the devastating pull of gravity, this triggers a contraction that is followed by a skyrocketing of temperature within the dying, doomed star. This means that the glittering multitude of stars inhabiting the Cosmos are all kept fluffy and bouncy as a result of a delicate balance between gravity and pressure. Gravity tries to pull everything in, while radiation pressure tries to push everything out. This precarious balancing act continues from star-birth to star-death–continuing for the entire „lifetime“ of the star. A star spends its „lifetime“ on the hydrogen-burning main-sequence of the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram of Stellar Evolution.

But, all good things must come to an end. When the aging star has finally managed to consume its entire necessary content of hydrogen fuel by way of the process of nuclear-fusion, it must perform its inevitable grand finale to the Universe. At this final, fatal point, gravity wins the ancient battle against its foe, radiation pressure, and the doomed massive star goes supernova.

Planet Birth

Planets are also born within the disk that encircles a newborn star. What is left over of the gas and dust, that went into the formation of the central baby star, evenually becomes the protoplanetary accretion disk–from which not only planets, but also moons, asteroids and comets emerge. In the earliest stages, protoplanetary accretion disks are seething hot and extremely massive, and they can hang around their young star for as long as ten million years.

By the time a newborn small star like our Sun has reached what is called the T Tauri stage of its evolution, the disk has grown considerable thinner and much cooler. A T Tauri is a stellar tot–a very young, variable star–that is quite active at the age of a mere 10 million years. These very young, small stars sport large diameters that are several times greater than that of our own „grown up“ Sun at present. Stars, like our Sun, can „live“ on the hydrogen-burning main-sequence for about 10 billion years, and our Sun is still in mid-life at approximately 4.56 billion years of age.

T Tauris grow smaller as they grow older. Very young Sun-like stars shrink as they „grow up“. Indeed, by the time the searing-hot stellar tot has reached the T Tauri stage, less volatile materials have started to condense close to the center of the surrounding accretion disk, forming extremely small and sticky grains of dust. These small and delicate dust particles contain crystalline silicates.

The sticky little dust motes collide with one anoter and merge within the dense environment of the disk. This causes ever larger and larger bodies to form–from grain size, to pebble size, to boulder size, to mountain size, to planet size. These growing bodies eventually become planetesimals–the „building blocks“ of planets. Planetesimals can be 1 kilometer across, or even larger, and they are an abundant population within the crowded accretion disk–and some of them can survive long enough to still be present billions of years after a fully-formed system of planets has evolved. In our own Solar Systems, the frozen, dusty comets are the relic primordial building blocks that formed the outer gaseous giant planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Conversely, the asteroids are what is left of the rocky and metallic planetesimals that formed the inner quartet of solid planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars.

The Star That Formed Like A Planet

By measuring the amount of radiation produced by the dust, as well as subtle alterations in the frequency of light emitted by the gas, the University of Leeds astronomers were able to calculate the mass of both MM 1a and MM 1b. The research describing the study is published in the December 14, 2018 issue of the Astrophysical Journal Letters, and it reveals the new findings that MM 1a weighs in at 40 times solar-mass, while the smaller orbiting star MM 1b was calculated to weigh less than 50% of the mass of our Sun.

„Many older massive stars are found with nearby companions. But binary stars are often very equal in mass, and so likely formed together as siblings. Finding a young binary system with a mass ratio of 80:1 is very unusual, and suggests an entirely different formation process for both objects,“ Dr. Ilee explained in the December 14, 2018 University of Leeds Press Release.

The currently favored explanation for the formation of MM 1b is that it was born in the frigid twilight zone of the outermost region of its star’s accretion disk. These „gravitationally unstable“ disks cannot hold themselves up against the merciless pull of their own gravity. For this reason, they collapse into one–or even more–fragments.

Dr. Duncan Forgan, who is a co-author from the Centre for Exoplanet Science at the University of St. Andrews in Scotland, commented in the December 14, 2018 University of Leeds Press Release that „I’ve spent most of my career simulating this process to form giant planets around stars like our Sun. To actually see it forming something as large as a star is really exciting.“

The team of astronomers went on to note that the newly-discovered baby star MM 1b could also be encircled by its very own circumstellar disk, which may have the ability to give birth to a system of planets of its own. However, if MM 1b is to accomplish this stellar parental feat, it will have to be quick.

As Dr. Ilee continued to explain: „Stars as massive as MM 1a only live for around a million years before exploding as powerful supernovae, so while MM 1b may have the potential to form its own planetary system in the future, it won’t be around for long.“

Massive stars „live“ fast and „die“ young–lasting only millions of years instead of the billions, or trillions, of years that their smaller stellar siblings can survive. Small stars of our Sun’s mass live for about 10 billion years, while the smallest true nuclear-fusing stars in our Galaxy–called red dwarfs–probably have the potential to „live“ for trillions of years. Because our Universe is less than 14 billion years old, it is generally thought that no red dwarf has had time enough to „die“ since the Big Bang.

The astronomers made their surprising discovery while making use of a one-of-a-kind new instrument that is located high in the Chilean desert–the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array (ALMA).

Using the 66 separate radio dishes that compose ALMA, together with a technique called interferometry, the astronomers were able to simulate the power of a single telescope that would be nearly 4 kilometers across. This made it possible for them to image the material encircling the duo of young stars for the first time.

The team of astronomers have been granted additional observing time with ALMA that will enable them to further characterize these fascinating star systems in 2019. The future observations will simulate a telescope that is 16 kilometers across.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Source by Judith E Braffman-Miller

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