Introduction to Satellite Digital Audio Radio service(SDARS)

Satellite Digital Audio Radio Service (SDARS):

SDAR is a satellite-based direct-broadcast radio service in which

digitally encoded audio entertainment material is broadcast to

Earth-based receivers, either directly from an orbiting satellite, or from the satellite to

the receiver via a repeater station (This is a special case in which the receiver is in a

shielded location). SDARS is a radio communication service through which audio

programming is digitally transmitted by one or more space stations directly to

fixed, mobile, and/or portable stations, and which may involve complementary

repeating terrestrial transmitters, telemetry, tracking and control facilities.

Through SDARS compact-disc quality audio is available because of digital transmition

is employed.

History of Satellite Radio:

Satellite radio is an idea over a decade long. In 1992, the U.S.

Federal Communications Commission (FCC) allocated a spectrum in the

„S“ band (2.3 GHz) for nationwide broadcasting of satellite-based

Digital Audio Radio Service (DARS). Only four companies applied for a

license to broadcast over that band. The FCC gave licenses

to two of these companies in 1997. CD Radio (now Sirius Satellite Radio) and

American Mobile Radio (now XM Satellite Radio) paid more than $80 million each

to use space in the S-band for digital satellite transmission. The first satellite based radio launched by XM on Sep 25, 2001, then followed by Sirius on July 1, 2002.

At this time, there are three space-based radio broadcasters:

    Sirius Satellite Radio
    XM Satellite
    Radio
    WorldSpace Satellite Radio

Importance and significance of Satellite radio:

We all have our favorite radio stations that we preset into our car

radios, flipping between them as we drive to and from work, on errands

and around town. But when you travel too far away from the source station, the

signal breaks up and fades into static. Most radio signals can only travel about 30

or 40 miles from their source. On long trips that find you passing through

different cities, you might have to change radio stations every hour or so as the signals fade in

and out. Now, imagine a radio station that can broadcast its signal from more than 22,000 miles (35,000 km) away and then come through on your car radio with complete clarity. One could drive

nearly hundreds of kilometers without ever having to change the radio station! Not

only would you never hear static interfering with your favorite tunes, but also the

music would be interrupted by few or no commercials.

Satellite radio companies are comparing

the significance of their service to the impact that cable TV had on

television 30 years ago. Listeners won’t be able to pick up local stations using

satellite radio services, but they will have access to hundreds of stations offering a

variety of music genres. Each company has a different plan for its broadcasting

system, but the systems do share similarities.

XM Satellite Radio, Sirius Satellite

Radio and WorldSpace satellite individually provides digital-audio

radio services (SDARS), with commercial-free programming, digital-audio quality, and

countrywide coverage. Each company offers nearly 100 channels of digital music and

talk radio (many of them commercial-free or with a reduced number of commercials)

that can be received from coast to coast with no service interruption. Each

offering number of music channels, these services clearly provides programming options

not available through traditional radio.

One of the main feature of SDARS is SDARS provides almost Commercial free (or Commercials are restricted) programs. And also it provides news, weather forecasts, and sports apart from

entertainment-based programs The primary application for this service is constant coast-to-coast coverage of radio for cars. We have all experienced the problem of trying to listen to radio on a long trip. Both AM and FM stations fade in and out as we drive into and out of their coverage

area. Portable full satellite radio service available now a days for

the car, home stereo and personal radio environments. Car manufacturers have been installing satellite radio receivers in some models for a few years now, and

several models of portable satellite radio receivers are available from a variety of

electronics companies.

Signal reception is generally poor as well as variable in the cases of AM or FM. With the SDARS systems, radio coverage throughout the 48 continental states is solid and continuous. Unlike

for AM and FM channels SDARS signals are available in a unique format

Subscription based radio service:

Because the technology requires access to a commercial satellite for

signal propagation; Satellite Radio services are commercial business

entities (not private parties), which offer a package of channels as part of their service

–requiring a subscription from end users to access its channels. Satellite

Radio Service can be subscribed at a monthly fee of $12.95 U.S. and up which

is very much worth full to the service that it gives.

Future of Satellite radio:

SDARS seems to get good market growth because of the following factors. Increasing

partnerships of XM and Sirius with Automobile OEM and distribution outlets made the

SDARS more popular. Introduction of more convenient hardware smaller and more

portable radios for the automobile as well as the home stereo,

computer and office and personal environments made possible at the

same time.

Home and personal use Industry promotional advertising and

awareness campaigns given the SDARS more popular. Sirius and XM now

also offer subscribers the option of listening to their programming

online. Apart from all of this,

price drop of hardware making it more affordable for after market purchase.

Author can be contacted through |24391d77a301d293af4d34b042a7d1d9| for more

information about SDARS.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg



Source by Jith Crs

The Strange Star That Was Born Like A Planet

A star is born within an especially dense blob tucked within the swirling, whirling folds of a giant, cold, dark and beautiful molecular Cloud. Such clouds float like phantoms through our Milky Way Galaxy in huge numbers, and they serve as the strange cradles of newborn stars. Although it may seem counterintuitive, things have to get very cold in order for a searing-hot, fiery baby star to be born. Young stars are circled by a surrounding disk of gas and dust termed a protoplanetary accretion disk, and these disks contain all of the necessary ingredients from which a system of planets can emerge. Protoplanetary accretion disks form at about the same time the baby star (protostar) does within its obscuring natal cloud. Most of the material contained in the accretion disk gathers at the center, and when this central material becomes massive enough, the process of nuclear fusion lights the newborn star’s stellar fires–for this is how a star is born. In December 2018, astronomers at the University of Leeds (UK) announced that they have captured one of the most detailed views of a young star obtained to date–and their observations revealed something surprising about the unexpected true identity of a companion object orbiting around it.

While carefully observing the young star, the astronomers, led by Dr. John Ilee from the University of Leeds, made the surprising discovery that it is not really one star–but two. The primary object of this duo, dubbed MM ia, is a massive baby star still encircled by its natal protoplanetary accretion disk. The disk was actually the original target of the astronomers‘ investigation.

A faint body, dubbed MM 1b, was detected just beyond the disk circling around MM 1a. The University of Leeds astronomers propose that this mysterious object is one of the first examples of a „fragmented“ disk to be spotted around a young massive star.

„Stars form within large clouds of gas and dust in interstellar space,“ noted Dr. Ilee in a December 14, 2018 Leeds University Press Release. „When these clouds collapse under gravity, they begin to rotate faster, forming a disk around them. In low mass stars like our Sun, it is in these disks that planets can form,“ he added. Dr. Ilee is of the School of Physics and Astronomy at Leeds.

„In this case, the star and disk we have observed is so massive that, rather than witnessing a planet forming in the disk, we are seeing another star being born,“ he continued to explain.

A Star Is Born

Stars are enormous fluffy balls of searing-hot, glaring, roiling gas. Regardless of their mass, all stars are primarily composed of hydrogen gas. Hydrogen is both the most abundant, as well as the lightest, atomic element in the Universe. In their hidden, hot, roiling hearts, stars transform their abundant supply of hydrogen into progressively heavier and heavier atomic elements. All of the atomic elements that are heavier than helium (the second-lightest atomic element in the Universe) are manufactured in the furnaces of stars–or, alternatively, in the brilliant blaze of a supernova blast that marks the explosive „death“ of a massive star. Indeed, the heaviest atomic elements of all–such as gold and uranium–are created in the violent explosion of a brilliant supernova.

The process of stellar nucleosynthesis is the term astronomers use to describe the way that natural abundances of the chemical elements contained within stars experience a strange sea-change. This sea-change is the result of nuclear fusion reactions that occur within stellar cores and their encircling mantles. Stars change as they grow older. These age-related stellar alterations depend on the abundances of atomic elements that stars hold within their seething-hot hearts. Fusion reactions occurring within a star’s core increase the atomic weight of its constituent elements. This causes a reduction of the number of particles. This process may result in the loss of radiation pressure–and the outward push of pressure is necessary to keep the star bouncy against the relentless inward pull of its own merciless gravity. When pressure can no longer battle the devastating pull of gravity, this triggers a contraction that is followed by a skyrocketing of temperature within the dying, doomed star. This means that the glittering multitude of stars inhabiting the Cosmos are all kept fluffy and bouncy as a result of a delicate balance between gravity and pressure. Gravity tries to pull everything in, while radiation pressure tries to push everything out. This precarious balancing act continues from star-birth to star-death–continuing for the entire „lifetime“ of the star. A star spends its „lifetime“ on the hydrogen-burning main-sequence of the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram of Stellar Evolution.

But, all good things must come to an end. When the aging star has finally managed to consume its entire necessary content of hydrogen fuel by way of the process of nuclear-fusion, it must perform its inevitable grand finale to the Universe. At this final, fatal point, gravity wins the ancient battle against its foe, radiation pressure, and the doomed massive star goes supernova.

Planet Birth

Planets are also born within the disk that encircles a newborn star. What is left over of the gas and dust, that went into the formation of the central baby star, evenually becomes the protoplanetary accretion disk–from which not only planets, but also moons, asteroids and comets emerge. In the earliest stages, protoplanetary accretion disks are seething hot and extremely massive, and they can hang around their young star for as long as ten million years.

By the time a newborn small star like our Sun has reached what is called the T Tauri stage of its evolution, the disk has grown considerable thinner and much cooler. A T Tauri is a stellar tot–a very young, variable star–that is quite active at the age of a mere 10 million years. These very young, small stars sport large diameters that are several times greater than that of our own „grown up“ Sun at present. Stars, like our Sun, can „live“ on the hydrogen-burning main-sequence for about 10 billion years, and our Sun is still in mid-life at approximately 4.56 billion years of age.

T Tauris grow smaller as they grow older. Very young Sun-like stars shrink as they „grow up“. Indeed, by the time the searing-hot stellar tot has reached the T Tauri stage, less volatile materials have started to condense close to the center of the surrounding accretion disk, forming extremely small and sticky grains of dust. These small and delicate dust particles contain crystalline silicates.

The sticky little dust motes collide with one anoter and merge within the dense environment of the disk. This causes ever larger and larger bodies to form–from grain size, to pebble size, to boulder size, to mountain size, to planet size. These growing bodies eventually become planetesimals–the „building blocks“ of planets. Planetesimals can be 1 kilometer across, or even larger, and they are an abundant population within the crowded accretion disk–and some of them can survive long enough to still be present billions of years after a fully-formed system of planets has evolved. In our own Solar Systems, the frozen, dusty comets are the relic primordial building blocks that formed the outer gaseous giant planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Conversely, the asteroids are what is left of the rocky and metallic planetesimals that formed the inner quartet of solid planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars.

The Star That Formed Like A Planet

By measuring the amount of radiation produced by the dust, as well as subtle alterations in the frequency of light emitted by the gas, the University of Leeds astronomers were able to calculate the mass of both MM 1a and MM 1b. The research describing the study is published in the December 14, 2018 issue of the Astrophysical Journal Letters, and it reveals the new findings that MM 1a weighs in at 40 times solar-mass, while the smaller orbiting star MM 1b was calculated to weigh less than 50% of the mass of our Sun.

„Many older massive stars are found with nearby companions. But binary stars are often very equal in mass, and so likely formed together as siblings. Finding a young binary system with a mass ratio of 80:1 is very unusual, and suggests an entirely different formation process for both objects,“ Dr. Ilee explained in the December 14, 2018 University of Leeds Press Release.

The currently favored explanation for the formation of MM 1b is that it was born in the frigid twilight zone of the outermost region of its star’s accretion disk. These „gravitationally unstable“ disks cannot hold themselves up against the merciless pull of their own gravity. For this reason, they collapse into one–or even more–fragments.

Dr. Duncan Forgan, who is a co-author from the Centre for Exoplanet Science at the University of St. Andrews in Scotland, commented in the December 14, 2018 University of Leeds Press Release that „I’ve spent most of my career simulating this process to form giant planets around stars like our Sun. To actually see it forming something as large as a star is really exciting.“

The team of astronomers went on to note that the newly-discovered baby star MM 1b could also be encircled by its very own circumstellar disk, which may have the ability to give birth to a system of planets of its own. However, if MM 1b is to accomplish this stellar parental feat, it will have to be quick.

As Dr. Ilee continued to explain: „Stars as massive as MM 1a only live for around a million years before exploding as powerful supernovae, so while MM 1b may have the potential to form its own planetary system in the future, it won’t be around for long.“

Massive stars „live“ fast and „die“ young–lasting only millions of years instead of the billions, or trillions, of years that their smaller stellar siblings can survive. Small stars of our Sun’s mass live for about 10 billion years, while the smallest true nuclear-fusing stars in our Galaxy–called red dwarfs–probably have the potential to „live“ for trillions of years. Because our Universe is less than 14 billion years old, it is generally thought that no red dwarf has had time enough to „die“ since the Big Bang.

The astronomers made their surprising discovery while making use of a one-of-a-kind new instrument that is located high in the Chilean desert–the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array (ALMA).

Using the 66 separate radio dishes that compose ALMA, together with a technique called interferometry, the astronomers were able to simulate the power of a single telescope that would be nearly 4 kilometers across. This made it possible for them to image the material encircling the duo of young stars for the first time.

The team of astronomers have been granted additional observing time with ALMA that will enable them to further characterize these fascinating star systems in 2019. The future observations will simulate a telescope that is 16 kilometers across.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg



Source by Judith E Braffman-Miller

Most Surprising Celebrity Genealogy Discoveries

There’s one common human thread that everyone shares, whether you’re Cindy Crawford, an office worker in Munich or you have the most important job of all (Mom, of course) in Salt Lake City-everyone wants to know where, and who, they came from. Genealogy is the study and tracing of your lines of descent, and everyone’s story line is unique. No matter what your ancestors did, knowing your roots doesn’t determine who you are, but it sure does offer some insight (not to mention some great conversation starters).

Celebrities are just like us, except people are a lot more interested in finding out what’s in Kelly Clarkson’s grocery cart than the peanut butter and broccoli you’re pushing around. It comes as no surprise that when it comes to genealogy, we can’t get enough of finding out who our favorite A-listers ancestors were. Here are some of the most shocking celebrity genealogy revelations-so far.

Digging Up History

Zooey Deschanel may be best known for epitomizing „adorkable,“ especially on her show New Girl, and it seems like she comes from a long line of strong women. One of her ancestors was Sarah Henderson Pownall, an abolitionist who helped blaze trails-and left plenty of documentation behind to prove it. The forward-thinking Pownall’s actions, beliefs and dreams are clear, so maybe there’s a seed of truth to the whole nature vs. nurture debate since Deschanel is known for her free loving ways.

If it seems like some people have all the luck, Cindy Crawford’s ancestral roots seem to prove it. The un-aging supermodel recently discovered that she’s related to Ernest Hemingway. As if being the descendant of a literary giant wasn’t enough, Crawford is also distantly related to an Italian king and Charlemagne. With royalty and greatness running in her blood, Crawford has said that’s „Not bad for a girl from the Midwest.“

It All Started with a Big Bang?

Jim Parsons, best known for playing Sheldon Cooper on The Big Bang Theory, has revealed that his great-grandfather six times over was the „architect first class“ to the King of France in the late 18th century. While visiting France, Parsons got to experience what every genealogist works towards: Seeing first-hand the result of an ancestor’s hard work. Stepping into a historic church that his ancestor designed and helped to build, there’s nothing like a tangible artifact to remind all of us just how real our roots are.

Not everyone is related to royalty, we can’t all trace our lineage back a thousand years, and sometimes-most of the time-the most incredible of stories aren’t laced with paparazzi and celebrities. Each story is thrilling, mesmerizing, heartbreaking, inspiring and filled with joy because they’re real. There’s no telling what a person will unearth when they start digging into their family history. There may be dead ends and family rumors dispelled or proven, but a glimpse into the past can be an excellent springboard into a more well-informed future.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg



Source by Jill Smith

Some Guidelines For Safe Rock Climbing

Rock climbing is an activity in which participants climb up, down or across natural rock formations or artificial rock walls. The goal is to reach the summit of a formation or the endpoint of a previously defined route without falling. Rock climbing competitions have objectives of completing the route in the quickest possible time or the farthest along an increasingly difficult route.

• A wide range of equipment is used during rock climbing.

• The article on protecting a climb describes equipment commonly used to protect a climber against the consequences of a fall.

Ropes used for climbing can be divided into two classes: dynamic ropes and low elongation ropes. Dynamic ropes are designed to absorb the energy of a falling climber and are usually used as belaying ropes. Low elongation ropes stretch much less and are usually used in anchoring systems.

Some tips for safe climbing:

• Always check harnesses – After you’ve geared up, always check that the climber’s harness buckles are doubled back.

• Always check knots – before you start climbing, always double check that leader’s tie- in knot is tied right and finished with a back up knot.

• Always wear a helmet – Always wear one when climbing or belaying. Helmets protect your head from falling rocks and from the impact of falling.

• Always check the rope and the belay device – Before you lead a route, always double check that the rope is properly threaded through the belay device.

• Always use a long rope – Make sure your climbing rope is long enough to reach the anchors.

• Always pay attention – Never take the leader off belay unless you are absolutely certain he is tied in and safe and he communicates that to you.

• Always bring enough gear – Before you climb a route, always eyeball it from the ground and determine what you need to bring. Don’t rely strictly on a guidebook to tell you what to bring.

• Always climb with the rope over your leg – always make sure the rope is over your leg rather than between them or behind one.

• Always properly clip the rope – Make sure you always clip your rope through carabineers on quick draws correctly.

• Always use safe anchors – At the top of a pitch or route, always use at least two anchors. Three is better.

Safety is and should be one of the important concerns in Rock Climbing. It is usually done in areas where medical assistance is not readily available. The sport presents a physical and mental challenge with minimal danger. Because of the potential for serious injury, much specialized safety equipment has been devised, making it a very safe sport in most cases. Finding a place to climb is easily done with one of the many available guidebooks.

Some safety equipment techniques:

• Top-roping, a rope from the top of the climb always holds the climber, making most slips harmless.

• Lead climbing; the climber attaches the rope to the rock at points along the climb. This is not as safe, it allows more routes to be climbed.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg



Source by Henry T Joseph

Using the Nikon D3400 Flash – Flashguns and the Pop-Up Flash on the Nikon D3400

So let’s start off first of all with the built-in D3400 flash options. It is easier to split what you can do with a flash into what you can do in the AUTO SETTINGS and then what you can do in the SEMI AUTOMATIC SETTINGS. Looking at the AUTO SETTINGS first, which are the settings from the green auto with flash down to night portrait. Here you are, in fact, quite restricted because you only have a few options. For example, in portrait option, if we go into the i button in portrait option and to flash mode, then you will see that there are three options – or rather two, because the third option is to switch off the flash – and the two options here are AUTO and AUTO WITH RED-EYE REDUCTION. Auto means that the flash will communicate with the camera and it will get the information from the camera – such as the ambient light and also the distance the subject is away from the camera – and so set the flash accordingly, so that you get the best possible exposure. Auto with redeye reduction is very useful, particularly for portraiture, because when you are taking a picture of a subject, firing a very powerful flash of light at them, and in particular into their eyes, it can cause redeye which is essentially the light bouncing from the retina and back out again towards the camera and because the retina is full of blood then it bounces back as red light. You do not want that, and so if you set it on Auto with redeye reduction then the illuminator will pre-flash and it flashes a quite bright light at the subject which will cause the subject’s pupils to contract and thus when the picture is taken and the full flash is used there is less light getting into the back of the eye. Of course it is a very useful option when you are in portrait mode because you are very likely to be taking a picture of somebody who is looking directly to the camera. If we go through the other D3400 flash options in automatic mode you will see that some of them do not allow you to use the flash at all. For example – and perhaps obviously – auto without flash will not give you the option of changing anything on the flash. You will not even be allowed to go and see it because there is no option to use flash. Likewise with SPORT and LANDSCAPE with all the other D3400 flash options, then the options I have just described in portrait mode are the ones you are offered, with the exception of NIGHT PORTRAITURE mode which is the one right at the bottom. When you are in this mode you are supposed to be taking portraits of people at night and so those are very specific circumstances. The D3400 flash option we have here – again there are only two – are AUTO SLOW and AUTO SLOW WITH RED-EYE REDUCTION. Now what does that mean? Well if you are taking a picture on AUTO then the Nikon D3400 will try to have a shutter speed which is reasonably quick. However when you are shooting at night you might want to slow that shutter speed down, because with a fast shutter speed you are less likely to get the ambient background onto the sensor and so into your picture, and if you did an ordinary auto picture with flash at night time, then your subject will be well exposed but will be in almost complete blackness because the shutter speed was not slow enough to allow in the ambient light of the background. So the slow shutter means that there is more chance of that ambient light to come in and this option slows down the shutter speed so that the ambient background comes in to give context to your portrait, and then the flash will fire so that the subject is well exposed in the foreground and that is a real improvement on the way that you can shoot portraits than for example shooting it in auto where you get no background whatsoever because it will be flashed out.

So those are the Nikon D3400 flash options that you get in AUTO and now let’s take a look at the options you get in the semi-automatic mode. So if we go into the P MODE first and then go into the flash options we will see that we have got far more choice here but in fact we have seen most of them before. The first two are the auto settings which here are called FILL FLASH and then RED-EYE REDUCTION FLASH, then SLOW WITH RED-EYE REDUCTION and SLOW WITHOUT RED-EYE REDUCTION. Then the final one is SLOW REAR and this is quite interesting. So let’s have a look at how this D3400 flash option works. In most cases you will have a shutter speed – let’s say for example it is 1/60th – and so when you fire the shutter you will open the shutter the flash will go off and for the remaining split-second of that 1/60th of a second the shutter will remain open and then it will close. Now what that does in most cases is have no effect whatsoever because very many things do not move within that 1/60th of a second. However if you are photographing something that is moving very quickly, then if you shoot in that way what will happen is the shutter will open then the flash will fire fixing the subject onto the picture and then for the remaining split second the subject will move and there will be motion blur in the picture and if the person or subject that you are photographing is moving in a specific way for a specific reason – they are running for example – then it will appear that they are running backwards because the blur will give the motion effect of it looking like is actually going backwards rather than forwards. So this option here which is the SLOW REAR means that the flash fires at the rear curtain at the end of the frame. So in this instance the shutter will open, your subject will move and then just before the shutter closes again, the flash will fire and so fixing the subject into the picture so the blur then is, if you like, him moving in the right direction. It is very useful D3400 flash option. You may not use it very often, but sometimes when you want motion blur you want the motion to be in the right direction. This is why you would use that option.

Let’s go on to the next D3400 flash option which is SHUTTER SPEED priority. Here you do not get so many options because you are, in fact, controlling the shutter and that minimizes the number of options you have. In this D3400 flash option you have the normal fill-in flash and normal fill-in flash with redeye reduction. You also get the option of the rear curtain sync which as I have just said is very useful for motion and motion blur, but they are the only three options you get for flash when you are in shutter priority. If we go into APERTURE PRIORITY then we are back pretty much to what we have in the program mode – the P mode – which is fill-in flash with redeye, slow and slow with redeye, and slow rear. Finally, if we get on to MANUAL MODE then we have fewer options again. We have either fill-in flash or fill-in flash with redeye reduction and the rear curtain sync mode.

Those are the automatic D3400 flash options that you get when you use the mode dial options here to see what you can use in terms of using your flash and their the AUTO options. If we want to see the MANUAL D3400 flash options, then we need to go into the MENU. If we go into the menu and into SHOOTING MENU, then at the bottom of page two you have the option of FLASH CONTROL FOR BUILT-IN FLASH. Here you have two options. The first is TTL which is the Through The Lens automatic option which is essentially what we have been discussing so far. Then below that you have the manual option and all this does really is control the power of the flash. So when you click on here you will see that you can either set the flash for full power and then by fractions 1/2, 1/4, 1/8 1/16 and 1/32. There is not a great deal of option here. In fact, I would say that when you are using the internal flash, the built-in flash, here you are going to be using it nearly every time on the auto D3400 flash option.

So if you want to be more creative with your photography and use flash photography more creatively, you are going to want to use a flash gun or off-camera flash. Let’s take a look at a generic flash gun or off-camera flash. Nikon, of course, make their own flash guns and they are very good indeed. However, they are quite expensive and generic models are cheaper and also tend to be reasonably reliable. I would suggest that you get a generic model first time round because it means that you do not invest as much money as you could do into a flash gun and it gives you the opportunity to experiment to be creative before you decide whether you want to pursue flash photography further. If you are buying a flash gun the thing to look for initially is that it has TTL – Through The Lens – setting for flash which means that the flash will flash automatically and get the best exposure possible according to the information given to it by the camera. The important reason why it should have TTL for your first flash gun is that it means that you can put it onto the top of your camera and start taking well exposed pictures straight away, and that is a great confidence booster. You also need to make sure if you are buying a generic flash gun that you buy it for a Nikon DSLR camera. You cannot put a Canon dedicated flash onto a Nikon camera. The electronics on the footplate, which goes on to the hot shoe, are different and you will damage your camera. So always get a Nikon dedicated generic flash. It is not too difficult – nearly all the major generic flash manufacturers produce for both Canon and Nikon and other camera manufacturers but make sure that yours is a NIKON.

So, having established those few rules, let’s have a look and switch this generic one on. Well it takes a few seconds to switch on so that you can not switch it on accidentally. It runs on four AA batteries so you do not want it left on or accidentally switched on, because it will eat through those batteries quite quickly. The first thing to look at is the light, which signifies that the flash is ready to fire and when that light is illuminated it means that the flash is ready to go. If you press that you will see that the flash goes off. The next button is the light button which lights up the back screen, which can actually be quite useful and is very useful for seeing what you are doing. The next one here is the zoom button. Now if you have this functioning in the TTL function then the camera and the flash will speak to each other and the flash will know what the zoom setting is whether it’s 55mm 28mm or 18mm it will know that and set the flash accordingly. However if you want to over-ride that then you can manually set the zoom setting and you do that by pressing the zoom button and then by using the multi-selector to move the zoom setting up and down and what you will hear when you are doing that is the internal workings of the zoom changing, so that it changes the flash in order to set itself to the zoom setting that you are making. If you do not want that you can just leave it on AUTO and it will sit on probably about 35mm unless it goes onto the camera and changes accordingly.

Next to the flash button we have the MODE BUTTON and this gives you the three mode options that you have with most generic flash guns. The first one is TTL which of course is effectively the automatic function and when this is attached to the camera it will get its information from the camera and set the exposure accordingly. The second one is manual and that allows you to, amongst other things, change the power of the flash so you can have it on full or you can reduce it by fractions down to one 1/128th power. Then the third one is MULTI which allows you to have multiple flashes in the same frame and so it can give you a strobe effect. Let’s take a look at these in more detail. If we go into TTL there is not a great deal more that we can do. However we can use some FLASH BRACKETING here, by using the multi-selector panel here by going up or down and that allows us to bracket our photography. In other words you can fire three frames and depending on what we want to set it on here is one stop for example we can have the first frame fired with one stop overexposed the second frame fired at roughly what the camera expects to it should be the correct exposure and then the third frame will be one stop underexposed. That allows you a little flexibility particularly if you are not entirely happy with the way that the picture looks with auto exposure and it allows you to just be a little more flexible. Likewise, when you are in this mode you can use the multi-selector left and right to have some FLASH EXPOSURE COMPENSATION so if you decide that you want a little more or a little less light in auto mode you can set the flash auto compensation here so that you will always get just that little bit extra or a little bit less light when you are shooting. Those are pretty much the options that you get in TTL.

Now if we go into MANUAL you do not get the bracketing option but you do get the option of flash exposure compensation. Then finally on MULTI FLASH you get three options. You have three options and if you press the center button in the multi selector then the first option flashes and that is HERTZ. Now Hertz refers to the number of flashes per second and you are likely to want to that set to say 10 so that you will get 10 flashes per second, but you can often set it much higher. The next thing you need to think about is either how many flashes you are going to want or for how many seconds you want it to operate. With this flash gun it talks about the number of flashes so in this instance for example I might want 20 flashes and I use the multi-selector to get up to 20. Of course if I have 20 flashes at 10 flashes per second I am talking of having my shutter open for 2 seconds to get the full impact of these options. So that is the option I have chosen and so when I set the camera, which will be on shutter speed priority, I will set that onto the shutter being open for 2 seconds. On some flash guns you do not get the number of flashes as the option you get the number of seconds as the option and so it works in the same way but the equation is slightly different, but essentially we are talking about the same thing. Hertz is the number of flashes per second and then the second option is either how many flashes in total or how many seconds in total and so in this instance here we will have 10 flashes per second, 20 flashes in total, over a period of two seconds. I would recommend that you have a try at multi flash photography because it is great fun.

So far we have been looking at this as using it as a flash gun in other words having it on top of the camera. But you can also use this as an off-camera flash and that means that you can set it on a foot like this, which has an option to set it onto a tripod, and you can actually have the flash away from the camera but still controlled by the camera and let me show you how that can work. First of all you go into manual mode and then you press this function button here. Again it may be slightly different on another generic flash gun, but they are essentially the same, and you get the off-camera flash options. There will be a symbol, probably, representing radio connectivity and that means that you would have to have a radio trigger which means that you have to have a transmitter and receivers for your flash guns. That means that you would have to invest in those things. They are accessories for the camera, so I am not going to discuss that at the moment. I am going to look at the free option.

If you look at the front of the Flash, you will see a red pane. In here there is a detector which will detect the flash of this camera here or the camera that you are using and when it detects that flash it will flash the flash gun itself. That suddenly opens you up to a whole new way of shooting pictures because you have control over the light and you can also position the light where you want it to be, and that is fantastic. So this is a great option here in this mode. In this flash gun you have two S modes – S1 is a straight flash which means that when it sees the flash on the camera it will flash. S2 is for when the camera is in RED-EYE REDUCTION MODE, because as we know when we shoot in redeye reduction mode the pre-flash will go off. What you do not want is for this flash to go off when the pre flash goes off because it will miss the moment when the actual flash goes off. So in S2 it will ignore the first flash and then fire at the second. It is important knowing the two options here between S1 and S2 because I am sure I am not the only photographer not to have remembered that and been pulling his hair out in a shoot wondering why my flash gun will not fire. It will not fire because I have got the camera on redeye reduction and so it will not fire when it is on the wrong S setting. Remember that.

So those are the D3400 flash options that you have got with a generic flash gun. You can control it automatically with TTL, you can control it manually which means that you can control it on the camera manually or more likely off the camera manually and you can control it remotely by having the flash sensor here, so that it will flash when the flash on the camera goes and then you have multi flash options which is usually set on the camera and fires at the same time as the shutter is open, and bear in mind that the shutter can be open for any time really but it could be seconds rather than split seconds which is the normal shutter speed for normal photography.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg



Source by Jeremy Bayston

Christian Radio Stations, Contemporary Christian Music and Gospel Radio, Alive With Hope

As individually created people we have an immense privilege over the angels. You may recall that the angel that appeared to Cornelius in the book of Acts 10 was not allowed to mention the name of Jesus or speak to him about salvation, but we are. That’s because that holy and high privilege was and still is reserved for men and women, people like you and me. All the angel was allowed to say was „Now send men to Joppa and send for Simon Peter (shortened from Acts 10:5). This mighty angel from the depths of heaven had to bow to Peter’s higher privilege as a man rather than an angel.

An great way to spread His Gospel message is through the power of radio. The cost compared to alternative media is very inexpensive and radio can be tailored to a specific outreach, be that raising awareness for a cause or ministry, increasing congregation size of fulfilling the Lord’s calling to spread the Gospel message. And because radio is a passive medium as opposed to say print or television, people can do other things while engaging with a radio message. This is a huge plus in our busy lives today.

Time is of the essence in fact the Bible speaks of it as „imminence“. And while the Gospel is eternal we don’t have eternity to preach it. Each of us has an individual „call to action“ right now to do his or her part to reach as many souls as possible and save them into the eternal salvation. There are literally hundreds of ways in which to do this.

Most recently technology and the media has opened up new doors as never before to flood the gates of heaven and while within that hundreds of individual ways to make known salvation through Christ. One excellent way that has been tried and proven true is that of broadcast radio.

In addition, radio can be individualized. Because there are so many smaller and unique stations and such a wide variety of formats, radio is truly one of the few communications platforms that can be custom tailored to an individual calling. As one example let’s say a church, ministry or humanitarian cause wants to move beyond the „four walls“ of their current outreach, radio represents and excellent way to do this with very little outlay of resource. That’s because it is easy to produce radio content – often times existing sermons can be modified for radio – and it is relatively inexpensive.

It is also to move your outreach from say a Christian radio station format to Country, where the scope of actual converted Christian listeners may indeed be fewer, those ripe for the harvest may indeed be plenty – something God calls upon us in the Book of Acts to more than just consider.

There are several great resources to learn more about how you can utilize radio to increase awareness for your ministry and utilize radio for a Gospel outreach, several of which can be found on the internet search „gospel radio today“ to learn more.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg



Source by Stan C Snyder

Enjoy Those Outdoor Hardscaped Kitchen Adventures Under The Moon And Stars

Basements were the rave earlier with music, dance, food and drink. Quitting the underground odors, why not get out into the open like living it up in resorts? Retreats and theater work so well in the backyard facilities. Get noisy and merry, grill it all up, outdoor kitchens are hot and cool sanctuaries for the modern generation.

Have lots of fun with Yellow River Granite

Though men often feel that the spouse rules over the home, let that outdoor kitchen portray what is male. Perhaps Rustic Gold stacked stone panels could combine with Yellow River Granite. The modern built-in fire pit glows amidst the shining blue crystals. Get as wild as you wish outdoors, since the kids won’t wake and drunks will not knock over those dainty fittings and artworks as they stagger around.

The Ultimate Amusement Area

Would you fancy Canyon Creek Stacked Stone? Watch dramatic games out there, savor drinks at the bar and make merry across the wild nights. Fans provide relief in the summer and the fireplace is ever waiting during winter. Canyon Creek Stacked Stone makes you feel at home in modern rustic grace with the grays and golds.

A blissful refuge far away

Tuscany Beige Travertine Pavers bring the warmth of the interiors. The man cave need not be extensive, a small part of the backyard would suffice. Whether reserved or outgoing by nature, neutral tones in the outdoor kitchen and lounge area feel relaxed. Install rustic wooden beams.

A Nature Cocoon

Will it be California Gold Slate Flagstones on the floor? Several natural stones create a sizzling ambiance. After all those painful hours working at the office desk, grab some outdoor freshness after getting home. Friends amidst nature would be intensely reviving.

Would you cook too?

Let the outdoor space be large, according to availability. Silver Travertine Pavers in silver, beige and gray create the right setting and would match well with beige cabinets and steel appliances. A cooking contest perhaps, among the family and friends. A steel grill, a large sink and a cooktop are essentials.

If you fancy a hardscaped kitchen outdoors with facilities for entertainment and partying, why not do it? The right investment it is to live it up at intimate assemblies for many years. You get to do many things out there, besides being revived from the interior tedious life, especially during weekends. Explore the possible designs and options.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg



Source by Paul Toomey

Prom Dresses for 2014 – New Designs to Feel Like a Celebrity

If you are looking for new arrival prom dresses for 2014 then one shoulder dresses are the best available option for you to go with. Most of the celebrities love these types of outfits. So, getting a celebrity look is very easy with these types of dresses.

Unlike strapless dresses, they give you proper coverage. They are very elegant, chic and sexy but not vulgar in appearance. They are considered as the best stuff to enhance your self-esteem and confidence level. Needless to say that confidence makes you more beautiful than ever.

As you are going to attend a prom, you must look glamorous and elegant but not vulgar and cheap. It is seen that in the formal events, most of the girls like to wear formal dresses i.e. a strapless or with sleeves or straps dress. So, one shoulder dresses provide you proper style and make you more attractive than ever.

When it comes to wearing these dresses, you will find them very comfortable and easy to put on. They are going to be most popular new-in wedding dresses for the 2014 season.

Before buying such dresses, you need to know that one shoulder dress should be selected as your physical appearance. Hence, you must know which cut would suit your body shape better. So, it is recommended that before attending a prom, you need to try some dresses.

If you are going to buy a dress then the first thing that attracts you most is colour of the dress. Therefore, if you want to have a proper dress, you need to choose right colour for you. You must remember that colour should be chosen according to skin complexion. If you are fair in complexion, you can select a wide range of colours according to your choice. However, in case of having a dark skin complexion, you must be very careful before making a final decision.

A dress accessory helps great in enhancing your overall appearance. If you want to choose a dress accessory then you need to wear a belt. A stylish belt can help in defining your waistline. If you are very skinny then it helps you getting an amazing look.

If you choose one shoulder dress, you don’t need to wear a normal bra as it may spoil your elegant look. Hence, you should select a strapless bra for maximum comfort and style. For selecting right strapless bra, you can visit at the nearest lingerie store. Another important point that you need to keep in mind while wearing the dress is underwear. You need to select right size of underwear to get maximum possible comfort out of it. While selecting underwear, you must select it according to your physical appearance.

Now, you are ready to lead the world of glamour and style with a one shoulder dress. So, you must have got the overall idea that why celebrities like these dresses too much. If you want to look like a celebrity, you need to wear a right one shoulder prom dress. Moreover, if you want to grab more information about new arrival prom dresses for 2014, you can search them online.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg



Source by David J Martin

Acid Rock Music – A Blast to the Past

Most people have heard the term Acid Rock Music. Many of them have listened to it. If they’ve lived their childhood in a house with parents from the 1960’s and 1970’s it was probably their cradle music. A few of them may have even spent some of those teenage years of theirs lounging around the house and classroom in passed along Grateful Dead Tee Shirts, ripped jeans, and experimenting with some old records of Pink Floyd and Led Zeppelin.

When they were your age…

What they may or may not know is that this music was created for experimentation, of the drug induced variety. It is a trivial fact that most of the artists who wrote these songs were under the influence of acid at the time. Thus the penned name Acid Rock Music came to be. If they were not then the people who were listening to it were. With songs like „White Rabbit“ by Jefferson Airplane and group names like Bubble Puppy, it was easy to see the attempt at recreating the tripping experience. There was a long list of groups and bands honoring their musical genre. A few more examples are 13th Floor Elevators, the Blue Magoos, the Bermuda Triangle band, Zakary Thaks, Foghat, and Molly Hatchet.

Pay Tribute to the Music…Man.

Acid Rock first started making its appearance in the sixties. It carried on a long line of hits and wonders through the eighties. The Grateful Dead gained popularity in and around 1969 and continued on to the end. They still have an avid fan base. At one point the rock sensation The Beatles, a British group popular with the main stream, tried a bit of psychedelic acid rock their selves. The genre had then reached a whole new level.

Time for Some New Threads

From the music came the style. Out were their parent’s conservative dress and in came the hippie. Jeans, crazy colored tee shirts and long hair dominated the Acid Rock Music generation. They were all about those other realities instead of the one they were in. People shopped at stores called Mr. Fish and spent their nights with friends getting high.

Rock on!

Acid Rock Music is a definitive aspect of the sixties and seventies generation. From this came the Hair Metal of the eighties and the hard and alternative rock of today. It was the music that your parent’s parents hated just like your parents hate yours. It is a musical experience grounded in drug use. Confusing phrases, wild rides, and colorful beats, the music is a trip within itself. No one can say for certain however, just how enjoyable it would be unless you understood the phrase ‚being under the influence‘.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg



Source by Ian Pennington

Oakley Sunglasses in Pop Culture

There is little question that Oakley sunglasses are one of the world’s most popular eyewear pieces, if not one of the world’s most popular brands per se. Wherever and whenever the new line of Oakley sunglasses, trust that the window will be flooded with onlookers wanting to personally study, admire and scrutinize the franchise’s sure-to-be bestseller.

But Oakley sunglasses aren’t only popular with people who want protection for their eyes. Oakley sunglasses aren’t only popular for athletes who need protective goggles for their chosen sports.

Oakley sunglasses are also very popular in mainstream media. Television shows, movie productions, commercials and other forms of media… these have become the domain of Oakleys for the past few decades.

Take, for example, the X-Men trilogy. There is a character in the movies named Cyclops, field leader of the X-Men and second in command, next only to the founder, Professor Charles Xavier. Cyclops was played by James Marsden. The character was a mutant whose power was a powerful optical blast which he cannot control unless his eyes were covered with ruby. Oakley created a special eyewear for the character, the X-metal/Ruby Iridium Penny. So popular was this product that replicas were made available to the public because of the huge demand. The replica, however, did not include the sideblinders which the movie version had, mainly because in reality, no one needs them since no one is a mutant, more so someone who possesses uncontrollable optical blasts.

Another superhero movie which prominently featured Oakley Sunglasses is Spider-Man 2, with Dr. Octopus wearing one of the brand’s eyepieces. Also, the Blade trilogy starring Wesley Snipes had the titular character – a half-vampire who slays evil vampires – wearing a pair of Oakleys as part of his usual ensemble. The Mission: Impossible team led by Tom Cruise’s character, Ethan Hawk, also wore Oakleys when in public and when at work.

Poker, a very popular „card sport“ these days, require a lot of bluffing. One’s eyes must be concealed to likewise conceal one’s often devious intentions. Oakley itself has sponsored a popular professional player, Phil Hellmuth, who always wears his Oakley sunglasses during tours.

Motorbike racing, another sport where eye protection is essential, is home to a lot of athletes who wear Oakley sunglasses. It is common to see a pair of Oakleys on participants of the Ducati MotoGP, for example.

Oakley sunglasses have also been featured prominently in military-themed video games, particularly in Tom Clancy’s Rainbow 6 and Ghost Recon series.

The prevalence of Oakleys in popular culture is testament to how well the brand has been embraced by the world as one of the premiere eye protection and eye fashion products today.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg



Source by David H Hobson

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